The United States: Legislation and Practice in Implementing the Protocol

  • Christopher C. Joyner
Part of the Environment & Policy book series (ENPO, volume 28)


On 2 October 1996, President William Clinton signed into law the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act of 1996 (ASTCA).1 This act concluded four years of intense discussions between the administration and environmental organisations over the content and scope of US legislation needed for implementing the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.2 In the process, several critical environmental issues and policy considerations were debated intensely in order to fuse together the legislation necessary to ratify the Protocol.


Environmental Impact Assessment Harmful Interference Antarctic Treaty Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation Emergency Response Action 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher C. Joyner

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