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Enhancement of Stress Tolerance by Gene-Engineering of Betaine Accumulation in Plants

  • H. Hayashi
  • A. Sakamoto
  • Alia
  • N. Murata
Chapter

Abstract

When exposed to saline environments, many organisms accumulate specific types of organic molecules, termed compatible solute, to levels sufficient to maintain an equal water potential with the environment. These compounds play important roles, at the cellular level, as an osmoregulator and a stabilizer of the higher-order structure of proteins. Compatible solutes are defined as the low molecular weight compounds which are involved in the regulation of osmotic pressure and in the protection of enzymatic activity. These molecules include sugars (sucrose, trehalose, glycosylglycerol, etc.), polyols (mannitol, sorbitol, inositol, ononitol, pinitol, glycerol, etc.), amino acids (glutamate, proline) and quaternary ammonium compounds (glycinebetaine (hereafter betaine), β-alaninebetaine, prolinebetaine, etc.).

Key Words

salt stress salt tolerance transgenic plant chilling compatible solute 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Hayashi
    • 1
  • A. Sakamoto
    • 2
  • Alia
    • 2
  • N. Murata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  2. 2.National Institute for Basic BiologyOkazakiJapan

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