Lipid Extraction from Plant and Muscle Tissues Using Supercritical CO2

  • F. Temelli
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NSSE, volume 366)


Different cell and tissue structures of various biological materials as well as their moisture content play an important role in the extraction of lipids with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). All biological matter is made up of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and inorganic salts. Hundreds of components are organized within the cell structure where they interact with each other in various ways. When such a complicated system is placed in a high-pressure environment with the objective of extracting specific components using a supercritical solvent, the complexity of the system increases dramatically. Our understanding of the component interactions during supercritical fluid extraction is quite limited. Thus, structure of the starting material and location of the components of interest need to be examined to have a better understanding of the component interactions and how they affect extraction kinetics.


Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Supercritical Fluid Extraction Fiber Cell Fish Muscle Residual Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Eggers, R. (1996) Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oilseeds/lipids in natural products, in J.W. King and G.R. List (eds.), Supercritical Fluid Technology in Oil and Lipid Chemistry, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp 35–65.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Forrest, J.C., Aberle, E.D., Hedrick, H.B., Judge, M.D. and Merkel, R.A. (1975) Principles of Meat Science, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, pp. 25–82.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seyder, J., Friedrich, J.P., and Christiansen, D.D. (1984) Effect of moisture and particle size on the extractability of oils from seeds with supercritical CO2, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61, 1851–1856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Christianson, D.D., Friedrich, J.P., List, G.R., Warner, K., Bagley, E.B., Stringfellow, A.C., and Inglett, G.E. (1984) Supercritical fluid extraction of dry-milled com germ with carbon dioxide, J. Food Sci. 49, 229–232, 272.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dunford, N.T. and Temelli, F. (1997) Extraction conditions and moisture content of canola flakes as related to lipid composition of supercritical CO2 extracts, J. Food Sci. 62, 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunford, N.T. and Temelli, F. (1996) Effect of supercritical CO2 on myrosinase activity and glucosinolate degradation in canola, J. Agric. Food Ghent. 44, 2372–2376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eldridge, A.C., Friedrich, J.P., Warner, K., and Kwolek, W.F. (1986) Preparation and evaluation of supercritical carbon dioxide defatted soybean flakes, J. Food Sci. 51, 584–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taniguchi, M., Nomura, R., Kijima, I., and Kobayashi, T. (1987) Preparation of defatted mustard by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, Agric. Biol. Chem. 51, 413–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin, C.S. and Zayas, J. (1987) Protein solubility, emulsifying stability and capacity of two defatted corn germ proteins, J. Food Sci. 52, 1615–1619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chao, R.R., Mulvaney, S.J., Bailey, M.E., and Fernando, L.N. (1991) Supercritical CO2 conditions affecting extraction of lipid and cholesterol from ground beef, J. Food Sci. 56, 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    King, J.W., Johnson, J.H., Orton, W.L., McKeith, F.K., O’Connor, P.L., Novakofski J., and Carr, T.R. (1993) Fat and cholesterol content of beef patties as affected by supercritical CO2 extraction, J. Food Sci. 58, 950–952, 958.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wehling, R.L., Froning, G.W., Cuppett, L.S., and Niemam, L. (1992) Extraction of cholesterol and other lipids from dehydrated beef using supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1204–1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Froning, G.W., Fieman, F., Wehling, R.L., Cuppett, S.L., and Niemann, L. (1994) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids and cholesterol from dehydrated chicken meat, Poultry Sci. 73, 571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedrich, J.P. (1984). Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids form lipid-containing materials. U.S. Patent 4, 466, 923.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wiebe, R. and Gaddy, V.L. (1941) Vapor phase composition of carbon dioxide-water mixtures at various temperatures and at pressures to 700 atmospheres, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 63, 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    King, J.W., Johnson, H.J., and Friedrich, J.P. (1989) Extraction of fat tissue from meat products with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 951–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martin, R.E. and Flick, G.J. (eds.) (1990) The Seafood Industry, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamaguchi, K., Murakami, M., Nakano, H., Konosu, S., Kokura, T., Yamamoto, H., Kosaka, M., and Hata, K. (1986) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of oils from Antarctic krill, J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 904–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ikusfaima, Y., Saito, N., Hatakeda, K., Ito, S., Asano, T., and Goto, T. (1986) A supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from mackerel (Scomber japonicus) powder: Experiment and modeling, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 59, 3709–3713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hardardottir, I. and Kinsella, J.E. (1988) Extraction of lipid and cholesterol from fish muscle with supercritical fluids, J. Food Sci. 53, 1656–1661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fujimoto, K., Endo, Y., Cho, S.Y., Watabe, R., Suzuki, Y., Konno, M., Shoji, K., Arai, K., and Saito, S. (1989) Chemical characterization of sardine meat powder produced by dehydration with high osmotic pressure resin and defatting with high pressure carbon dioxide, J. Food Sci. 54, 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Temelli, F., LeBIanc, E., and Fu, L. (1995) Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and protein functionality, J. Food Sci. 60, 703–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Temelli, F., LeBlanc, E., Fu, L., and Turchinsky, N.J. (1998) Effect of supercritical CO2 extraction of oil on physicochemical properties of residual Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) proteins, J. Muscle Foods 9, 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunford, N.T., Temelli, F., and LeBlanc, E. (1997) Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and residual proteins from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) as affected by moisture content, J. Food Sci. 62, 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eisenbach, W. (1984) Supercritical fluid extraction: A film demonstration, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88, 882–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rizvi, S.S.H., Chao, R.R., and Liew, Y.J. (1988) Concentration of ω-3 fatty acids from fish oil using supercritical carbon dioxide, in B.A. Charpentier and M.R. Sevenants (eds.), Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography: Techniques and Applications, ACS Symp. Series No. 366, American Chemical Society Pub., Chicago, IL, pp. 89–108.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nilsson, W.B., Gauglitz, E.J., and Hudson, J.K. (1989) Supercritical fluid fractionation of fish oil esters using incremental pressure programming and temperature gradient, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 66, 1596–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Higashidate, S., Yamauchi, Y., and Saito, M. (1990) Enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid esters from esterified fish oil by programmed extraction-elution with supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Chromatogr. 515, 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nelson, G.J. (1991) Isolation and purification of lipids from biological matrices, in E.G. Perkins (ed.), Analysis of Fats, Oils and Lipoproteins, Am. Oil Chem. Soc., Champaign, IL, pp. 20–59.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bharath, R., Yamaee, S., Inomata, H., Adschiri, T. and Arai, K. (1993) Phase equilibria of supercritical CO2 - fatty oil component binary systems, Fluid Phase Eq. 83, 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kashulines, P., Rizvi, S.S.H., Harriot, P., and Zollweg, J.A (1991) Viscosities of fatty acids and methylated fatty acids saturated with supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68, 912–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dunford, N.T., Goto, M., and Temelli, F. (1998) Modeling of oil extraction with supercritical CO2 from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) at different moisture contents, J. Supercrit. Fluids 13, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Temelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of Alberta EdmontonAlbertaCanada

Personalised recommendations