Special optical techniques of image formation

  • J. James
  • H. J. Tanke


When a light ray passes through a transparent object having a different refractive index from that of the medium, it undergoes phase changes (as discussed in Section 2.1) which, unlike the case of amplitude changes, are not revealed in the visible image. Consequently, a transparent object such as a tissue section will give an image which is poor in contrast and yields little information. By reducing the aperture of the illumination beam by means of the aperture diaphragm, contrasts may be enhanced (Figure 2.2A) but in the end the result will remain unsatisfactory. The formation which follows from the modulation of the illumination beam by the object remains concealed in the image.


Differential Interference Contrast Phase Plate Optical Path Difference Entrance Pupil Wollaston Prism 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. James
    • 1
  • H. J. Tanke
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

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