Why are Foraminiferida Foraminifers ?

  • Ole S. Tendal
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 327)


Fossil benthic and planktonic foraminifers play a major role in paleontology, first of all as a stratigraphic tool, but also in paleoecology, paleoclimatology, paleoceanography and paleobiogeography. Recent foraminifers are abundant and diverse in nearly all modern marine ecosystems, and although little is known about their life as organisms, they are among the most important marine animal groups (Bernstein et al., 1978; Gooday, 1986, 1988; Hemleben et al., 1989; Lipps, 1983; Murray, 1973; Tendal & Hessler, 1977; Thiel, 1975, 1983).


Dissolve Organic Matter Benthic Foraminifera Planktonic Foraminifera Reproductive Pattern Planktonic Foraminifer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, O.R., Spindler, M., Bé A.W.H., and Hemleben, Ch. (1979) Trophic activity of planktonic Foraminifera, J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 59, 791–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernstein, B.B., Hessler, R.R., Smith, R. and Jumars, P.A. (1978), Spatial dispersion of benthic foraminifera in the abyssal central North Pacific, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 401–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bock, W., Hay, W., and Lee, J.J. (1985) Order Foraminiferida D’Orbigny, 1826, in: J.J. Lee, S.H.Hutner and E.C.Bovee (eds.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, Society of Protozoologists, 252–273.Google Scholar
  4. Boltovskoy E. and Wright, R. (1976) Recent foraminifera, W. Junk Publishers, The Haque.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brady, H.B. (1884) Report on the Foraminifera, Rep. scient. Results explor. Voyage Challenger 9, 1–814.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, J.B. and Hedley, R.H. (1960) A contribution to the biology of Astrorhiza limicola (Foraminifera) J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 39, 549–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981) Eucaryote kingdoms: seven or nine ?, Bio. Systems 14, 461–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cedhagen T. and Tendal, O.S. (1989) Evidence of test detachment in Astorhiza limicola, and two consequential synonyms Amoeba gigantea and Megamoebomyxa argillobia (Foraminiferida), Sarsia 74 (in press).Google Scholar
  9. Cushman, J.A. (1940) Foraminifera. Their classification and economic use, Harvard University Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  10. De Laca, T.E. (1982) Use of dissolved Amino Acids by the foraminifer Notodendrodes antarctikos, Amer. Zool. 22, 683–690.Google Scholar
  11. Frankel, L. (1975) Pseudopodia of surface and subsurface dwelling Miliammina fusca (Brady), J. Foraminiferal Res. 5, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gooday A.J. (1986) Soft-shelled Foraminifera in meiofaunal samples from the bathyal Northeast Atlantic, Sarsia 71, 275–287.Google Scholar
  13. Gooday A.J. (1988) Sarcomastigophora, in: R.P.Higgins and H.Thiel (eds.), Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp 243–254.Google Scholar
  14. Hedley, R.H. (1964) The biology of Foraminifera, Inter. Rev. Gen. Exper. Zool. 1, 1–45.Google Scholar
  15. Hemleben, Ch., Spindler, M. and Anderson, O.R. (1989) Modern planktonic Foraminifera, 363 pp., Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, London, Paris, TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third Edition (1985), University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  17. Kitazato, H. (1988) Locomotion of some benthic Foraminifera in and on sediments, J. Foraminiferal Res. 18, 344–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Le Calvez, J. (1936) Observations sur le genre Iridia, Archs. Zool. exp. gén. 78, 115–131.Google Scholar
  19. Lipps, J.H. (1983) Biotic Interactions in Benthic Foraminifera, in: M.J.S.Tevesc and P.L.McCall (eds.), Biotic Interactions in Recent an Fossil Benthic Communities, Plenum Publishing Corporation, 331–376.Google Scholar
  20. Loeblich, A.R. and Tappan, H. (1964) Sarcodina chiefly “Thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida, in R.C.Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part C, Protista 2, Geological Society of america and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1–900.Google Scholar
  21. Loeblich, A.R. and Tappan, H. (1988) Foraminiferal genera and their classification, Van Nostrand Reinold Company, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Murray, J.W. (1973) Distribution and Ecology of Living Benthic Foraminiferids, Heineman Educational Books, London.Google Scholar
  23. Spindler, M., Hemleben, Ch., Salomons, J.B., and Smith, L.P. (1984) Feeding behaviour of some planktonic foraminifers in laboratory cultures. J. foraminiferal Res. 14, 237–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tendal, O.S. (1979) Aspects of the biology of Komokiacea and Xenophyophoria, Sarsia 64, 13–17.Google Scholar
  25. Tendal, O.S. and Hessler, R.R. (1977) An introduction to the biology and systematics of Komokiacea (Textulariina, Foraminiferida), Galathea Report 14, 165–194.Google Scholar
  26. Thiel, H. (1975) The Size Structure of the Deep-Sea benthos, Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 60, 575–606.Google Scholar
  27. Thiel, H. (1983) Meiobenthos and nanobenthos of the deep sea, in: G.T.Rowe (ed.), The Sea 8, 167–230.Google Scholar
  28. Travis, J.L. and Bowser, SS. (1986) A New Model of Reticulopodial Motility and Shape: Evidence for a Microtubule-Based and an Actin Skeleton, Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 6, 2–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Whittaker, R.H. and Margulis, L. (1978) Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms, Bio Systems 10, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ole S. Tendal
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoological MuseumUniversity of CopenhagenKøbenhavn ØDenmark

Personalised recommendations