Other soft tissue tumours

Part of the Current Histopathology book series (CUHI, volume 22)


Soft tissue tumours in childhood are histogenetically diverse, comprising a wide range of entities that vary considerably in prevalence, anatomical location and metastatic potential. They have been already discussed to some extent in the preceding chapters, e.g. fibromatosis and rhabdomyosarcoma. This chapter deals essentially with remaining soft tissue entities that are likely to occur in children. Some are seen specifically as childhood tumours while others, occurring more commonly in the older population, are seen from time to time in children, and are therefore also considered here.


Synovial Sarcoma Soft Tissue Tumour Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Tendon Sheath Epithelioid Sarcoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W. Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen’s disease). In: Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W., editors. Soft tissue tumors. St Louis, Toronto, London: C.V. Mosby; 1983:606–15Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raffensperger J, Cohen R. Plexiform neurofibromas in childhood. J Pediatr Surg. 1972;7:144–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coffin C.M., Dehner L.P. Cellular peripheral neural tumors (neurofibromas) in children and adolescents: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. Pediatr Pathol. 1990;10:351–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gallager R.L., Helwig E.B. Neurothekeoma-a benign cutaneous tumor of neural origin. Am J Clin Pathol. 1980;74:759–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abell M.A. Hart W.R., Olson J.R. Tumors of the peripheral nervous system. Hum Pathol. 1970;1:503–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fletcher C.D.M. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Pathol Annu. 1990;2:53–74.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meis J.M., Enzinger F.M., Martz K.L., Neal J.A. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (malignant schwannomas) in children. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16:694–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lack E.E., Worsham G.F., Callihan M.D., Crawford B.E., Vawter G.F. Gingival granular cell tumors of the newborn (congenital ‘epulis’): a clinical and pathologic study of 21 patients. Am J Surg Pathol. 1981;5:37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lifshitz M.S., Flotte T.J., Greco M.A. Congenital granular cell epulis. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations. Cancer. 1984;53:1845–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tucker M.C., Rusnock E.J. Azumi N, Hoy G.R., Lack E.E. Gingival granular cell tumors of the newborn. An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1990;114:895–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park S.H., Kim T.J., Chi Je G. Congenital granular cell tumor with systemic involvement. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991;115;934–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chung E.B. Pitfalls in diagnosing benign soft tissue tumors in infancy and childhood. Pathol Annu. 1985;20:323–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Regezi J.A. Zarbo R.J., Courtney R.M., Crissman J.D. Imunoreactivity of granular cell lesions of skin, mucosa, and jaw. Cancer. 1989;64;1455–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chung E.B., Enzinger F.M. Benign lipoblastomatosis. An analysis of 35 cases. Cancer. 1973;32:482–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chaudhuri B, Ronan S.G., Ghosh L. Benign lipoblastoma. A case report. Cancer. 1980;46:611–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abdul-Karim F.W., Evans H.L., Silva E.G. Giant cell fibroblastoma: a report of three cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1985;83:165–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dymock R.B., Allen P.W., Sterling J.W., Gilbert E.F., Thornbery J.M. Giant cell fibroblastoma. A distinctive, recurrent tumor of childhood. Am J Surg Pathol. 1987;11:263–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chou P, Gonzalez-Crussi F. Mangkornkanok M. Giant cell fibroblastoma. Cancer. 1989;63:756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fletcher C.O.M. Giant cell fibroblastoma of soft tissue: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. Histopathology. 1988;13:499–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shmookler B.M., Enzinger F.M., Weiss W.W. Giant cell fibroblastoma. A juvenile form of dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans. Cancer. 1989;64:2154–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beham A. Fletcher C.D.M. Dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans with areas resembling giant cell fibroblastoma: a report of two cases. Histopathology. 1990;17:165–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alguacil-Garcia A. Giant cell fibroblastoma recurring as dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:798–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McKee P.H., Fletcher C.D.M. Dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans presenting in infancy and childhood. J Cutan Pathol. 1991;18:241–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Enzinger F.M., Zhang R. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in children and young adults. An analysis of 65 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1988;12;818–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hollowood K, Holley M.P., Fletcher C.D.M. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour: clinicopathological. immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis in favour of a myofibroblastic lesion. Histopathology. 1991;19:503–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Enzinger F.M. Angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. A distinctive fibrohistiocytic tumor of children and young adults simulating a vascular neoplasm. Cancer. 1979;44:2147–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Costa M.J., Weiss S.W. Angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. A follow-up study of 108 cases with evaluation of possible histological predictors of outcome. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14:1126–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fletcher C.D.M. Angiomatoid ‘malignant fibrous histiocytoma’. An immunohistochemical study indicative of myoid differentiation. Hum Pathol. 1991;22:563–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Argenyi Z.B., Van Rybroek J.J., Kemp J.D., Soper R.T. Congenital angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. A light-microscopic, immunopathologic, and electron-microscopic study. Am J Dermatopathol. 1988;10:59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enzinger F.M., Shiraki M. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. An analysis of 34 cases. Hum Pathol. 1972;3:421–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hachitanda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Daimaru Y et al. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in young children. Cancer. 1988;61:2521–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jessurun J, Rojas M.E., Albores-Saavedra J. Congenital extraskeletal chondrosarcoma. J Bone Jt Surg. 1982;64:293–6.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coffin C.M., Dehner L.P. Soft tissue neoplasms in childhood: a clinicopatholic overview. In: Finegold M, editor. Pathology of neoplasia in children and adolescents. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1986:223–55.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bernstein K.E., Lattes R. Nodular (pseudosarcomatous) fasciitis, a nonrecurreni lesion: clinicopathological study of 134 cases. Cancer. 1982;49;1668–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Montgomery E.A. Meis J.M. Nodular fasciitis. Its morphological spectrum and immunohistochemical profile. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:942–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lauer D.H., Enzinger F.M. Cranial fasciitis of childhood. Cancer. 1980;45:401–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Suster S, Rosai J. Hamartoma of the scalp with ectopic meningothelial elements. A distinctive benign soft tissue lesion that may simulate angiosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1990;14:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bale P.M., Hughes L, de Silva M. Sequestrated meningoceles of scalp: extracranial meningeal heterotopia. Hum Pathol. 1990;21:1156–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W. Alveolar soft part sarcoma. In: Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W., editors. Soft tissue tumors. St. Louis, Toronto, London: C.V. Mosby; 1983:780–87.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schmidt D, Thum P, Harms D, Treuner J. Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents. A report from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry. Cancer. 1991;67:1667–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W. Synovial sarcoma. In: Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W., editors. Soft tissue tumors. St Louis, Toronto, London C.V. Mosby; 1983:519–49.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smith S, Reeves B.R., Wong L, Fisher C. A consistent chromosome translocation in synovial sarcoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987;26;179–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W. Myositis ossificans. In: Enziger F.M., Weiss S.W., editors. Soft tissue tumors. St Louis, Toronto, London: C.V. Mosby; 1983:720–9.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cramer S.F., Ruehl A. Mandel M.A. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. A distinctive bone-forming lesion of the soft tissue. Cancer. 1981;48;1016–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Myers B.W., Masi A.T., Feigenbaum S.L. Pigmented villonodular synovitis and tenosynovitis: a clinical epidemiologic study of 166 cases and review of the literature. Medicine. 1980;59:223–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wood G.S., Beckstead J.H., Medeiros L.J., Kempson R.L., Warnke R.A. The cells of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath resemble osteoclasts. Am J Surg Pathol. 1988;12:444–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W. Fibroma of tendon sheath. In: Enzinger F.M., Weiss S.W., editors. Soft tissue tumors. St Louis, Toronto, London: C.V. Mosby; 1983:31–3.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chung E.B., Enzinger F.M. Fibroma of tendon sheath. Cancer. 1979;44;1945–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pulitzer D.R., Martin P.C., Reed R.J. Fibroma of tendon sheath. A clinicopathologic study of 32 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:472–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Heffner R.R., Armbrustmacher V.W., Earle K.M. Focal myositis. Cancer. 1977;40:301–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Markel S.F., Enzinger F.M. Neuromuscular hamartoma-a benign ‘Triton tumor’ composed of mature neural and striated muscle elements. Cancer. 1982;49:140–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gonzalez-Crussi F, Goldschmidt R.A. Hsueh W et al. Infantile sarcoma with intracytoplasmic filamentous inclusions. Cancer. 1982;49:2365–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tsuneyoshi M, Daimaru Y, Hashimoto H, Enjoji M. Malignant soft tissue neoplasms with the histologic features of renal rhabdoid tumors: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Hum Pathol. 1985;16;1235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Perrone T, Swanson P.E., Twiggs L, Ulbright T.M., Dehner L.P. Malignant rhabdoid tumour of the vulva: is distinction from epithelioid sarcoma possible? A pathologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:848–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kodet R, Newton W.A. Sachs N et al. Rhabdoid tumors of softtissues: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases enrolled onthe Intergroup Rhabdo-myosarcoma Study. Hum Pathol. 1991;22:674–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berry P.J. Vujanic G.M. Commentary: Malignant rhabdoid tumour. Histopathology. 1992;20:189–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chase D.R. Enzinger F.M. Epithelioid sarcoma. Diagnosis, prognostic indicators. and treatment. Am J Surg Pathol. 1985;9:241–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Enzinger F.M. Epithelioid sarcoma. A sarcoma simulating a granuloma or a carcinoma. Cancer. 1970;26:1029–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schmidt D. Harms D. Epithelioid sarcoma in children and adolescents. An immunohistochemical study. Virchows Arch. A. 1987;410:423–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fisher C. Epithelioid sarcoma: the spectrum of ultrastructural differentiation in seven immunohistochemically defined cases. Hum Pathol. 1988;19:255–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pettinato G. Manivel J.C. De Rosa N. Dehner L.P. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (plasma cell granuloma). Clinicopathologic study of 20 cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94:538–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Scott L. Blair G. Taylor G. Dimmick J. Fraser G. Inflammatory pseudotumors in children. J Pediatr Surg. 1988;23:755–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Berardi R.S. Lee S.S. Chen H.P. Stines G.J. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1983;156:89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen K.T. Inflammatory pseudotumour of the liver. Hum Pathol. 1984;15:694–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Meis J.M. Enzinger F.M. Inflammatory fibrosarcoma of the mesentery and retroperitoneum. A tumor closely simulating inflammatory pseudotumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:1146–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Le Ber M.S. Stout A.P. Benign mesenchymomas in children. Cancer. 1962;15:598–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bures C. Barnes L. Benign mesenchymomas of the head and neck. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1978;102:237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Newman P.L. Fletcher C.D.M. Malignant mesenchymoma. Clinicopathologic analysis of a series with evidence of low-grade behavior. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:607–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Enzinger F.M. Weiss S.W. Malignant mesenchymoma. In: Enzinger F.M. Weiss S.W. editors. Soft tissue tumours. St Louis. Toronto. London: C.V. Mosby; 1983:808–10.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shmookler B.M. Enzinger F.M. Liposarcoma occurring in children. An analysis of 17 cases and review of the literature. Cancer. 1983;52:567–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weiss S.W. Enzinger F.M. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. An analysis of 200 cases. Cancer. 1978:41:2250–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zuppan C.W. Mierau G.W. Wilson H.L. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma in childhood: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Pathol. 1987;7:303–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nemes Z. Thomazy V. Factor Xilia and the classic histiocytic markers in malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study. Hum Pathol. 1988;19:822–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© S. Variend 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistopathologySheffield Children’s HospitalSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations