Beyond Technology to Democracy: The Tool Legacy in Instrumentalism



This chapter compares the instrumentalism of Clarence E. Ayres and Marc R. Tool. Both work in the tradition of John Dewey and Thorstein Veblen. However, Tool has picked up where Ayres left off and has moved instrumentalism beyond the Ayresian foundation. In particular, the Ayresian formulation of instrumentalism was made without the insights gained from the 1960s; while Tool’s contributions were made in full recognition of what the turbulent 1960s taught us. Technological progress was the central concept in Ayres’s instrumentalism. Tool’s more recent instrumentalism includes technological progress, but in dealing with the revolutionary upsurges of the 1960s, Tool makes democratic participation the central element of social value theory. Therein lies the Tool legacy.


Democratic Process Cultural Relativism Neoclassical Economic Emotional Conditioning Dynamic Element 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Economics DepartmentUniversity of TulsaTulsaUSA

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