Advertisement

Dosimetry

Chapter
  • 27 Downloads
Part of the Developments in Nuclear Medicine book series (DNUM, volume 25)

Abstract

The contribution of nuclear medicine applications to annual effective dose equivalent amounts to about 0,1 mSv -approximately 2% of the total contribution by all medical applications (Table 1). Since all ionising radiation is considered detrimental the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) suggests the use of the principle of limiting the radiation absorbed dose to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) within technical and economical constraints. It follows, therefore, that the preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy be critically applied. The ICRP further imposes dose equivalent limits which should not be exceeded (table 2) and the explicit guideline that any procedure using ionising radiation only be introduced if it offers a net positive benefit.

Keywords

Linear Energy Transfer Relative Biological Effectiveness Medical Internal Radiation Dose Tissue Weighting Factor Half Value Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Further Reading

  1. 1(a).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 17 (1971)-Protection of the patient in radionuclide investigations.Google Scholar
  2. 1(b).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 23 (1975)-Report on the task group on reference man.Google Scholar
  3. 1(c).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 25 (1977a)-The handling, storage, use and disposal of unsealed radionuclides in hospitals and medical research establishments.Google Scholar
  4. 1(d).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 26 (1977b)-Recommendations of the ICRP.Google Scholar
  5. 1(e).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 27 (1977c)-Problems involved in developing an index of harm.Google Scholar
  6. 1(f).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 28 (1978)-Statement from the 1978 Stockholm meeting of the ICRP.Google Scholar
  7. 1(g).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 30 (1979)-Part 1-limits for intake of radionuclides by workers.Google Scholar
  8. 1(h).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 35 (1982) -General principles of monitoring for radiation protection of workers.Google Scholar
  9. 1(i).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 52 (1987)-Protection of the patient in nuclear medicine.Google Scholar
  10. 1(j).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 54 (1988) -Individual monitoring for intakes of radionuclides by workers: design and interpretation.Google Scholar
  11. 1(k).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Number 60 (1990)-1990 Recommendations of the ICRPGoogle Scholar
  12. 1(l).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). number 61 (1190)-Annual limits on intake of radionuclides by workers based on the 1990 recommendations.Google Scholar
  13. 2(a).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 19 (1971)-Radiation quantities and units.Google Scholar
  14. 2(b).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Supplement 1973)-Dose Equivalent.Google Scholar
  15. 2(c).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 25 (1976)-Conceptual basis for the determination of dose equivalent.Google Scholar
  16. 2(d).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 32 (1979)-Methods of assessment of absorbed dose in clinical use of radionuclides.Google Scholar
  17. 2(e).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 33 (1980)-Radiation quantities and units.Google Scholar
  18. 2(f).
    Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Report 39 (1985)-Determination of dose equivalents resulting from external radiation sources.Google Scholar
  19. 3(a).
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). 1977 -Sources and Effects of ionizing radiation.Google Scholar
  20. 3(b).
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). 1982 -Ionizing radiation: Sources and biological effects.Google Scholar
  21. 3(c).
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). 1988b -Sources, effects and risks of ionising radiation. Annex F. Radiation carcinogenesis in man.Google Scholar
  22. 4(a).
    World Health Organization (WHO) Technical report 591 (1976) -Nuclear Medicine.Google Scholar
  23. 4(b).
    World Health Organization (WHO) Technical report 611 (1977) -Use of ionizing radiation and radionuclides on human beings for medical research, training and non-medical purposes.Google Scholar
  24. 5).
    Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation(BEIR). Report III (1980) -The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation.(National Academy Press, Washington).Google Scholar
  25. 6(a).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Loevinger and Berman (1968)-A schema for absorbed dose calculations for biologically distributed radionuclides.Google Scholar
  26. 6(b).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Berger (1968)-Energy deposition in water by photons from isotropic sources.Google Scholar
  27. 6(c).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Brownell, Eilet and Reddy (1968)-Absorbed fractions for photon dosimetry.Google Scholar
  28. 6(d).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Dillman (1969)-Radionuclide decay schemes and nuclear parameters for use in radiation dose estimation-part I.Google Scholar
  29. 6(e).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Snyder,Ford,Warner and Fisher (1969)-Fractions for mono-energetic photon sources uniformly distributed in various organs of a heterogeneous phantom.Google Scholar
  30. 6(f).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Dillman (1969)-Radionuclide decay schemes and nuclear parameters for use in radiation dose estimation-part II.Google Scholar
  31. 6(g).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Berger (1971) -Distribution of absorbed dose around point sources of electrons and ß-particles in water and other media.Google Scholar
  32. 6(h).
    Publications of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) Ellet and Humes (1971) -Absorbed fraction for small volumes containing photon emitting radioactivity.Google Scholar
  33. 7).
    Assisi A, Poston JW. Comparison of measured and calculated internal absorbed doses in a heterogeneous phantom. Phys Med Biol 1987;32:10, 1245– 1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 8).
    Berger MJ. Monte Carlo calculations of the penetration and diffusion of fast charged particles. Methods in computational physics volume 1 Academic Press New York 1963;135–215.Google Scholar
  35. 9).
    Broerse JJ. Influence of physical factors in radiation carcinogenesis in experimental animals. In : Baverstock, Stather, eds. Low dose radiation: Biological bases of risk assessment. Taylor and Francis, London 1989; 181–194. ed. Baverstock and Stather; Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  36. 10).
    Darby SC, et al. A parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given x-ray therapy.J Natl Cancer Inst 1985;75:1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 11).
    Fry RJM, et al. External radiation carcinogenesis. Adv Radiat Biol 1987;13:31–89Google Scholar
  38. 12).
    Hoop B. The infiltrated radiopharmaceutical injection: risk considerations editorial. J Nucl Med 1991;32:890–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 13).
    Luckey TD. Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing radiation. Health Physics 1982;43:6,771–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 14).
    Marks MA, Adelstein SJ. Radiation doses from radionuclidesadministered for therapy. Clinics in Oncology 1986;5:1,109–124.Google Scholar
  41. 15).
    NAS Health effects of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation.BEIR V Report. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  42. 16).
    Shapiro B, Pillay M. Dosimetric consequences of insterstitial extravasation following I.V. administration of a radiophamaceutical. Eur J Nucl Med 1987; 12: 522–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 17).
    Upton AC, et al. Radiation carcinogenesis. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations