Models of nuclear structure
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We have seen in the last chapter that the internucleon potential is extremely complicated. Any full theory of nuclear structure therefore has to contend not only with a quantum mechanical many-body problem involving tens or, for heavier nuclei, hundreds of nucleons but also with their interaction with each other through this complicated potential. An exact treatment is clearly not possible and the approach over the last half-century has been to devise increasingly sophisticated conceptual models of the nucleus which are simple enough to enable calculations to be made, but near enough to the physical situation to enable reasonably detailed understanding of nuclear behaviour to be achieved. Different models focus on different aspects of nuclear behaviour (ground state energy, excited state energies, electromagnetic properties, nuclear reactions at different energies, etc.) and on different groups of nuclei. In this chapter we shall consider the basic models which have facilitated understanding of nuclear energy levels (their energies, spins and parities) and their electromagnetic properties (magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments).
KeywordsShell Model Magic Number Collective Model Pauli Exclusion Principle Electric Quadrupole Moment
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