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Hertz’s Experiments on Electromagnetic Waves

  • Salvo D’Agostino
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 213)

Abstract

Heinrich Hertz’s decision to go to Helmholtz and to work in his laboratory in Berlin had great significance for his career in research. Helmholtz’s general outlook on science and physics had an initial bearing on Hertz’s own.

Keywords

Electromagnetic Wave Material Dielectric Electric Force Neutral Point Polarisation Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    For details of Hertz’s life, see “Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf”, in: McCormmach [1971] Vol. 6, 340–349. Hertz’s scientific formation is studied by Buchwald [1992], “The Training of German Research Physicist Heinrich Hertz”, in: Nye, Richard and Stuwer [1992].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heinrich Hertz, “Research on the Determination of an Upper Limit for the Kinetic Energy of the Electric Current”, in: Hertz [1880] 414–448; Hertz[1896] 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hertz [1896] 3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hertz [1896] 33.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hertz [1896] 34.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Helmholtz’s Preface to Hertz [1956] xxviii.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hertz [1962] Introduction, “Theoretical” 23–26.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hertz [1962] 1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hertz [1962] 2.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    “Im Laboratorium die Arbeit begonnen über schnelle Schwingungen”. Note for 7 September 1887, in: Hertz Johanna [1928] 175.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heinrich Hertz, “On the Relations between Maxwell’s Fundamental Electromagnetic Equations and the Fundamental Equations of the Opposing Electromagnetics”, in Hertz [1884]; Hertz [1896] 273–290.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    According to Doncel (Doncel [1991]), these conclusions were not included in the Academy report and were added by Hertz on 17 February 1888, to the paper published in Wiedemann Annalen Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Hertz [1962] 123, Paper No. 7, Conclusions.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Hertz [1962] 2. Concerning the further development of his experiments, Hertz maintained that “in altering the conditions I came upon the phenomenon of side sparks [secondary sparks] which formed the starting point of the following research”.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Hertz, “On Very Rapid Electric Oscillations”, in: Hertz (1962) 29–54, 29.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Hertz (1962] 33.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    Hertz, “On Very Rapid Electric Oscllations”,in: Hertz [1962] 29–53, 42–43.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    Hertz, “On an Effect of Ultraviolet Light Upon the Electric Discharge”, Hertz [1962] 63–79.Google Scholar
  19. 23.
    Henri Poincarè, Comptes Rendus, 3 [1891], 322.Google Scholar
  20. 24.
    Hertz, “Supplementary Notes, 1891”, in: Hertz [1962] 270.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    Hertz, “Introduction, A) Experimental”, in: Hertz [1962] 4–5.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    Hertz, “On the Action of a Rectilinear Electric Oscllation Upon a Neighbouring Circuit”, Wiedemann’s Annalen. 34 [1888], 155; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 80–94.Google Scholar
  23. 27.
    Hertz [1962] 82–83.Google Scholar
  24. 28.
    Hertz [1962] 90–91.Google Scholar
  25. 29.
    Hertz [1962] 86–91.Google Scholar
  26. 30.
    Poincarè disagreed with Hertz’s interpretation of nodes: letter from Poincarè to Hertz, 11 September 1890 (Hertz’s Correspondence, Deutsches Museum, MS. 3000).; A. Righi maintained that the gap corresponded to an antinode, and modern theories would not accept either Hertz’s or Righi’s extreme positions.Google Scholar
  27. 31.
    Lodge [1894] 8–9.Google Scholar
  28. 32.
    Hertz, “On Electromagnetic Effects Produced by Electrical Disturbances in Insulators”, Sitzungsber. d. Berl. Akad. d. Wiss. (10 Novembre 1887); in Wiedemann’s Annalen, 34 [1888], 273; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 95–106.Google Scholar
  29. 33.
    Hertz [1962] 96. D’Agostino [1976] 305.Google Scholar
  30. 34.
    Hertz [1962] 101.Google Scholar
  31. 35.
    Hertz [1962] 101.Google Scholar
  32. 36.
    A detailed interpretation of Hertz’s Academy Experiment in: Buchwald[1994] 254–261.Google Scholar
  33. 37.
    Hertz, “On the Finite Velocity of Propagation of Electromagnetic Actions”, presented at the Berlin Academy on 2 February 1888;reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 107–123.Google Scholar
  34. 38.
    Hertz [1962] 107.Google Scholar
  35. 39.
    Hertz [1962] 108.Google Scholar
  36. 41.
    Hertz [1962] 121. Hertz [1962] 151.Google Scholar
  37. 42.
    Hertz [1962] 121.Google Scholar
  38. 43.
    Hertz, “On Electromagnetic Waves in Air and Their Reflection.” Wiedemann’s Annalen, 34 [1888], 610; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 124–136.Google Scholar
  39. 45.
    Hertz[1962] 133.Google Scholar
  40. 46.
    Hertz, “The Forces of Electric Oscillations, Treated According to Maxwell’s Theory”, Wiedemann’s Annalen, 36 [1889], 1; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 137–159.Google Scholar
  41. 47.
    Hertz[1962] 140.Google Scholar
  42. 50.
    Hertz, Wiedemann’s Annalen, 36 [188]), 1; reprinted in: Hertz [1962 150.Google Scholar
  43. 51.
    Hertz [1962] 151.Google Scholar
  44. 52.
    Hertz [1962] 154.Google Scholar
  45. 53.
    Hertz [1962] 156.Google Scholar
  46. 54.
    Hertz[1962] 159.Google Scholar
  47. 55.
    Hertz[1962] 146.Google Scholar
  48. 56.
    Hertz [1962] 146; D’Agostino [1976] 318.Google Scholar
  49. 57.
    Hertz, “On the Propagation of Electric Waves by Means of Wires”, in: Hertz [1962] 160–171.Google Scholar
  50. 58.
    Heinrich Hertz, “On the Mechanical Action of Electric Waves in Wires”, Wiedemann’s Annalen, 42 (1891), 407; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 186–194.Google Scholar
  51. 59.
    Hertz [1962] 160–161.Google Scholar
  52. 61.
    Hertz, “On Electric Radiation”, Sitzungsber. d. Berl. Akad. d. Wiss. (13 December 1888); in Wiedemann’s Annalen, 36 [1889], 769; reprinted in: Hertz [1962] 172–185.Google Scholar
  53. 62.
    Hertz[1962] 182–183.Google Scholar
  54. 63.
    Hertz [1962]124–136, 124.Google Scholar
  55. 64.
    Hertz[1962] 136.Google Scholar
  56. 65.
    Hertz, “On the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetism for Bodies at Rest”, in: Hertz [1962] 195–241, 236.Google Scholar
  57. 66.
    Hertz “Introduction” 1–28, B) Theoretical, in: Hertz [1962] 22.Google Scholar
  58. 67.
    Hertz, “Introduction, A) Experimental”, in: Hertz [1962]. 6.Google Scholar
  59. 68.
    Hertz, “Introduction, A) Experimental”, in: Hertz [1962] 7.Google Scholar
  60. 69.
    Hertz, “Introduction, A) Experimental”, in: Hertz [1962] 7.Google Scholar
  61. 71.
    Hertz [1962] 195.Google Scholar
  62. 72.
    Hertz “On the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetism for Bodies at Rest”, Hertz [1962] 199 ff.Google Scholar
  63. 73.
    On Helmholtz’s polarisation: Helmholtz [187]) 615–618; Helmholtz [1881]. See also papers XXXII–XLI, in: Helmholtz [1882].Google Scholar
  64. 74.
    Hertz, “On the Fundamental Equations of Electromagnetism for Bodies at Rest”, in: Hertz [1962] 195–241 Section 4; especially “Isotropic Non Conductors”, 202 ff.Google Scholar
  65. 75.
    Helmholtz [1881] 818 ff. Hertz [1962], Introduction, 25.Google Scholar
  66. 76.
    Hertz [1962] 25.Google Scholar
  67. 78.
    Cazenobe [1980] refers to polarisation theories in his analysis of Hertz’s approach to the decisive experiment. Hertz’s and Helmholtz’s PT are estensively examined in: Buchwald [1994] 375–388.Google Scholar
  68. 79.
    According to accurate dating in a recent essay (Doncel [1991]), the majority of this paper was written shortly before 21 January 1888.Google Scholar
  69. 81.
    Helmholtz [1870] 573, 577, 625, 627.Google Scholar
  70. 82.
    Hertz [1962], 107; paper no. 7, dated: “February 1888.Google Scholar
  71. 83.
    Hertz, Introduction, in: Hertz [1962] 6.Google Scholar
  72. 84.
    I remarked this omission in 1975 (D’Agostino [1975] 310, 311).Google Scholar
  73. 86.
    Hertz [1962] Introduction 7.Google Scholar
  74. 87.
    Concerning this point, I disagree with Buchwald’s thesis (Buchwald [1994] 262–266) on the point that Hertz awaringly changed his 1888 logic in his 1892 Introduction (See D’Agostino “Hertz’s View on the Methods of Physics: Experiment and Theory Reconciled?” in: Baird, Hughes & Nordmann [1998] 89–102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvo D’Agostino
    • 1
  1. 1.Università “La Sapienza”RomaItaly

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