The Metaphysics, Epistemology and Methodology of Levels

  • Mario Bunge
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 44)


This chapter is concerned with what biologists and social scientists have been calling integrative levels, or levels of organization, for the past half century or so. I will start by elucidating the concept, and shall then proceed to state and discuss a few metaphysical, though not wild, theses concerning the multilevel structure of the world, as well as the consequences of these ideas for both epistemology (the general theory of knowledge) and the methodology of scientific research.


Level Structure Past Half Century Multilevel Structure Level Separatism Narrow Temperature Interval 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Bunge
    • 1
  1. 1.Foundations and Philosophy of Science UnitMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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