PSA 1972 pp 87-98 | Cite as

B. F. Skinner — The Butcher, the Baker, the Behavior-Shaper

  • Richard F. Kitchener
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science book series (BSPS, volume 20)


Once upon a time in the land of Psi there lived a very famous baker named Fred. Fred the baker was known from far and wide as the very best baker in the land. His skill at baking was unmatched for he could produce loaves of any size or shape — long and thin bread sticks, round Kaiser rolls, crescent-shaped croissants, twisted oval loaves, and so on. His famous motto was: “Give me the unkneaded dough and in time I can produce any kind of loaf of bread desired.” Fred called this process ‘shaping’.


Applied Science Pure Science Cumulative Record Bread Making White Flour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Agassi, J., ‘Sensationalism’, Mind 75 (1966) 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Agassi, J., ‘The Confusion between Science and Technology in Standard Philosophies of Science’, Technology and Culture 7 (1966) 348–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Benjamin, A. C., Science, Technology and Human Values, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1965.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Bingham, W. V., ‘On the Possibility of an Applied Psychology’, Psychological Review 30(1923)289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Bixenstein, V., ‘Empiricism in Latter-Day Behavioral Science’, Science 145 (1964) 464–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Bunge, M., ‘Technology as Applied Science’, Technology and Culture 7 (1966) 329–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Conant, J., Modem Science and Modern Man, Doubleday, New York, 1952.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Feibleman, J., ‘Pure Science, Applied Science, Technology, Engineering: An Attempt at Definitions’, Technology and Culture 2 (1961) 305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Feibleman, J., ‘Technology as Skills’, Technology and Culture 7 (1966) 318–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Gruender, D. C., ‘On Distinguishing Science and Technology’, Technology and Culture 12 (1971) 456–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Kaufman, A., ‘The Aims of Scientific Activity’, Monist 52 (1968) 374–389.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Leeper, R. W., ‘Theoretical Methodology in the Psychology of Personality’, Theories in Contemporary Psychology (ed. by M. Marx), MacMillan Company, New York, 1963, pp.389–413.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    London, P., ‘The End of Ideology in Behavior Modification’, American Psychologist 27 (1972)913–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Meehl, P., ‘On the Circularity of the Law of Effect’, Psychological Bulletin 47 (1950) 52–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Scriven, M., ‘A Study of Radical Behaviorism’, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 1 (ed. by H. Feigl et al.>), University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1956.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Skinner, B. F., ‘The Concept of the Reflex in the Description of Behavior’, Cumulative Record, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Skinner, B. F., ‘Current Trends in Experimental Psychology’, Cumulative Record, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Skinner, B. F., The Behavior of Organisms, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1938.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Skinner, B. F., ‘Are Theories of Learning Necessary?’, Cumulative Record, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Skinner, B. F., ‘How to Teach Animals’, Cumulative Record, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Skinner, B. F., Science and Human Behavior, MacMillan Company, New York, 1953.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Skinner, B. F., Contingencies of Reinforcement, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Skinner, B. F., Beyond Freedom and Dignity, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Skolimowski, H., ‘The Structure of Thinking in Technology’, Technology and Culture 7(1966)371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Titchener, E. B., ’On Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 53 (1914) 1–17.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Titchener, E. B., ‘Psychology: Science or Technology?’, The Popular Scientific Monthly 84 (1914) 39–51.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Verplanck, W. S., ‘Burrhus F. Skinner’, Modern Learning Theory (ed. by W. Estes), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1954.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard F. Kitchener
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyColorado State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations