Echocardiology pp 159-173 | Cite as

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiomyopathies

  • Walter L. Henry
  • Jeffrey S. Borer


Although several noninvasive techniques are useful in evaluating a patient with a suspected cardiomyopathy, none has proven to be as valuable as echocardiography 1). The strength of this technique is its unique ability to noninvasively visualize the left ventricle. In fact, in diseases that diffusely involve the heart (such as the cardiomyopathies), this noninvasive technique rivals invasive procedures as a method for assessing the structure and function of the left ventricle.


Left Ventricle Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Free Wall Ventricular Septum Systolic Anterior Motion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Feigenbaum H: Echocardiography (2nd Edition). Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Gramiak R, Shah PM, and Kramer DH: Ultrasound cardiography: contrast studies in anatomy and function. Radiology 92: 939, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Popp RL, Wolfe SB, Hirata T, and Feigenbaum H: Estimation of right and left ventricular size by ultrasound. A study of the echoes from the interventricular septum. Amer. J. Cardiol. 24: 523, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Feigenbaum H, Stone JM, Lee DA, Nasser WK, and Chang S: Identification of ultrasound echoes from the left ventricle using intracardiac injection of Indocyanine green. Circulation 41: 615, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Feigenbaum H, Popp RL, Wolfe SB, Troy BL, Pombo JF, Haine CL, and Dodge HT: Ultrasound measurements of the left ventricle: A correlative study with angiocardiography. Arch. Intern. Med. 129: 461, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Popp RL, and Harrison DC: Ultrasound cardiac echography for determining stroke volume and valvular regurgitation. Circulation 41: 493, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7).
    Fortuin NJ, Hood WP Jr, Sherman E, and Craige E: Determinations of left ventricular volumes by ultrasound. Circulation 44: 575, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    Teichholtz LE, Kreulen T, Herman MV, and Gorlin R: Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations: echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in the presence or absence of asynergy. Amer. J. Card.37: 7, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9).
    Feigenbaum H, Popp RL, Chip JN, and Haine CL: Left ventricular wall thickness measured by ultrasound. Arch. Intern. Med. 121: 391, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Griffith JM, and Henry WL: Switched gain: A technique for simplifying ultrasonic measurement of cardiac wall thickness. I.E.E.E. Transact on Biomed. Engr. 22: 337, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Goldberg SJ, Allen HD, and Sahn DJ: Pediatric and adolescent echocardiography. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. 1975.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, and Epstein SE: Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes. Ann.Internal Med. 82: 521, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Gardin JM, Henry WL, Savage DD, and Epstein SE: Echocardiographic evaluation of an older population without clinically apparent heart disease. Amer. J.Cardiol.39: 277, 1977 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    Valdez R, Motta J, Martin R, London E, Haskell W, Popp RL, and Horlick L: Survey of a normal population with the echocardiogram. Amer. J.Cardiol.39: 277, 1977 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  15. 15).
    Monald IG, Feigenbaum H, and Chang S: Analysis of left ventricular wall motion by reflected ultrasound: application to assessment of myocardial function. Circulation 46: 14, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Cooper RH, O’Rourke RA, Karliner JS, Peterson KL, and Leopold GR: Comparison of ultrasound and cineangiographic measurements of the mean rate of circumferential shortening in man. Circulation 46: 914, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17).
    Godwin JF, Gordon H, Hollman A, and Bishop MB: Clinical aspects of cardiomyopathy. Brit. Med. J. 1: 69, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18).
    Roberts WC, and Ferrans VJ: Pathological aspects of certain cardiomyopathies. Circ. Res. 34 (Suppl II): 11–128, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19).
    Abbasi AS, Chahine RA, Macalpin RN, and Kattua A A: Ultrasound in the diagnosis of primary congestive cardiomyopathy. Chest 63: 937, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Corya B, Feigenbaum H, Rasmussen S, and Black MJ: Echocardiography features of congestive cardiomyopathy compared with normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 49: 1153, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21).
    Henry WL, Clark CE, Roberts WC, Morrow AG, and Epstein SE: Differences in distribution of myocardial abnormalities in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH). Echocardiography and gross anatomic findings. Circulation 50: 447, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Braunwald E, Labrew CT, Rockoff SD, Ross J Jr, and Morrow AG: Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: I. A description of the disease based upon an analysis of 64 patients. Circulation 30 (Suppl IV): IV-3, 1964.Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    Epstein SE, Henry WL, Clark CE, Roberts WC, Maron BJ, Ferrans VJ, Redwood DR, and Morrow AG: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Ann.Int.Med.81: 650, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. 24).
    Abbasi AS, Malpin RN, Eber LM, and Pearce ML: Echocardiography diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without outflow obstruction. Circulation 46: 897, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25).
    Henry WL, Clark CE, and Epstein SE: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH): Echocardiography identification of the pathognomonic anatomic abnormality of IHSS. Circulation 47: 225, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Clark CE, Henry WL, and Epstein SE: Familial prevalence and genetic transmission of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. New Eng. J.Med.289: 709, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. 27).
    Maron BJ, Clark CE, Henry WL, Fukada T, Edwards J, Mathews E, Redwood DR, and Epstein SE: Is the disproportionately thickened ventricular septum always genetically transmitted ASH? Circulation 55: 489, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28).
    Goodman DJ, Harrison DC, and Popp RL: Echocardiography features of primary pulmonary hypertension. Amer. J.Cardiol.33: 438, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29).
    Shah PM, Gramiak R, and Kramer DH: Ultrasound localization of left ventricular outflow obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Circulation 40: 3, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30).
    Popp RL, and Harrison DC: Ultrasound in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 40: 905, 1969.Google Scholar
  31. 31).
    Henry WL, Clark CE, Glancy DL, and Epstein SE: Echocardiography measurement of the left ventricular outflow gradient in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. New Eng. J. Med.288: 989, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32).
    Henry WL, Clark CE, Griffith JM, and Epstein SE: Mechanism of left ventricular outflow obstruction in patients with obstructive ASH (IHSSJ. Amer. J.Cardiol.35: 337, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33).
    Quinones MA, Gaasch WH, Waisser E, and Alexander JK: Reduction in the rate of diastolic descent of mitral valve echogram in patients with altered left ventricular diastolic pressure - volume relations. Circulation 49: 246, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34).
    Henry WL, Clark CE, and Epstein SE: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH): The unifying link in the IHSS disease spectrum. Observations regarding its pathogenesis, pathophysiology and course. Circulation 47: 827, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35).
    Wigle ED, Heimbecker RO, and Gunton RW: Idiopathic ventricular septal hypertrophy causing muscular subaortic stenosis. Circulation 26: 325, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36).
    Abbasi AS, Ellis N, and Child J: Echocardiography features of infiltrative cardiomyopathy. J. Clin. Ultrasound 2: 221, 1974 (Abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37).
    Borer JS, Henry WL, and Epstein SE: Echocardiography observations in patients with systemic infiltrative disease involving the heart. Amer. J. Cardiol. 39: 184, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38).
    Arnett EN, Nienhuis AW, Henry WL, Ferrans VJ, Redwood DR, and Roberts WC: Massive myocardial hemosiderosis: A structure-function conference at the National Heart and Lung Institute. Amer. Heart. J. 90: 777, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Medical Division — The Hague 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter L. Henry
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Borer
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations