Uncovering the Differences between T Cell Tolerance and Immunity
In the last two decades, T cell function has been analyzed in vitro from many different angles, with a great deal of attention dedicated to the basic requirements of activation. During this time, a compendium of information has been collected and has proven to be invaluable. Paradoxically, very little is known about T cell activation and function in vivo. In the last decade, a number of models have been developed which allow the tracking of Ag-activated T cells in vivo and these studies have been instrumental in advancing the field of T cell biology. In particular, a new and emerging paradigm of T cell immunity is evolving.
Key wordsT cell activation immunity immune memory
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Akbar A. N., Borthwick N. J., Wickremasinghe R. G., Panayoitidis P., Pilling D., Bofill M., Krajewski S., Reed J. C. and Salmon M. (1996): Interleukin-2 receptor common gamma-chain signaling cytokines regulate activated T cell apoptosis in response to growth factor withdrawal: selective induction of anti-apoptotic (bcl-2, bcl-xL) but not pro-apoptotic (bax, bcl-xS) gene expression. Eur. J. Immunol., 26, 294–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flynn S., Toellner K. M., Raykundalia C, Goodall M. and Lane P. (1998): CD4 T cell cytokine differentiation: the B cell activation molecule, OX40 ligand, instructs CD4 T cells to express inter-leukin 4 and upregulates expression of the chemokine receptor, Blr-1. J. Exp. Med., 188, 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guerder S., Picarella D. E., Linsley P. S. and Flavell R. A. (1994): Costimulator B7-1 confers antigen-presenting-cell function to parenchymal tissue and in conjunction with tumor necrosis factor alpha leads to autoimmunity in transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 5138–5142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuroda K., Yagi J., Imanishi K., Yan X.-J., Li X.-Y, Fujimaki W, Kato H., Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Kumazawa Y., Abe H. and Uchiyama T. (1996): Implantation of IL-2-containing osmotic pump prolongs the survival of superantigen-reactive T cells explanded in mice injected with bacterial superantigen. J. Immunol., 157, 1422–1431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shuford W. W., Klussman K., Titchler D. D., Loo D. K., Chalupny J., Siadak A. W., Brown T. J., Emswiler J., Raecho H., Larsen C. P., Pearson T. C, Ledbetter J. A., Aruffo A. and Mittler R. S. (1997): 4-IBB constimulatory signals preferentially induce CD8+ T cell proliferation and lead to the amplification in vivo of cytotoxic T cell responses. J. Exp. Med., 186, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sprent J., Lo D., Gao E.-K. and Ron Y. (1998): T cell selection in the thymus. Immunol. Rev., 101, 173–190.Google Scholar