Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. III. Mitigation options and future research needs

  • R. Wassmann
  • R. S. Lantin
  • H. U. Neue
  • L. V. Buendia
  • T. M. Corton
  • Y. Lu
Part of the Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences book series (DPSS, volume 91)


Methane (CH4) emissions from rice fields were determined using automated measurement systems in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Mitigation options were assessed separately for different baseline practices of irrigated rice, rainfed, and deepwater rice. irrigated rice is the largest source of CH4 and also offers the most options to modify crop management for reducing these emissions. Optimizing irrigation patterns by additional drainage periods in the field or an early timing of midseason drainage accounted for 70%–80% of CH4 emissions of the respective baseline practice. In baseline practices with high organic amendments, use of compost (5863%), biogas residues (10–16%), and direct wet seeding (16–22%) should be considered mitigation options. In baseline practices using prilled urea as sole N source, use of ammonium sulfate could reduce CH4 emission by 1067%. In all rice ecosystems, CH4 emissions can he reduced by fallow incorporation (11%) and mulching (11%) of rice straw as well as addition of phosphogypsum (9–73%). However, in rainfed and deepwater rice, mitigation options are very limited in both number and potential gains. The assessment of these crop management options includes their total factor productivity and possible adverse effects. Due to higher nitrous oxide (N,O) emissions, changes in water regime are only recommended for rice systems with high baseline emissions of CH4. Key objectives of future research are identifying and characterizing high-emitting rice systems, developing site-specific technology packages, ascertaining synergies with productivity, and accounting for N2O emissions.


Rice Straw Total Factor Productivity Rice Field Methane Emission Organic Amendment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Wassmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. S. Lantin
    • 1
  • H. U. Neue
    • 1
    • 3
  • L. V. Buendia
    • 1
  • T. M. Corton
    • 4
  • Y. Lu
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.International Rice Research InstitutePhilippines
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU)Garmisch-PartenkirchenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Soil SciencesUfZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-HalleHalleGermany
  4. 4.Philippine Rice Research InstituteMuñoz, Nueva EcijaPhilippines
  5. 5.China National Rice Research InstituteHangzhou, ZhejiangChina

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