Environmental Exposure of Plant Protection Products

Portuguese experience
  • Flávia Alfarroba
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NAIV, volume 2)


Environmental exposure models play an important role in the risk assessment of plant protection products. The adoption of the EU legislation concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market - Directive 91/414/EEC - improved the use of models in the regulatory decision making process [1]. To harmonise and to give orientation on the use of exposure models within European Union Member States a very important contribution has been given by the FOCUS groups. Portugal has followed all these developments and the Portuguese experience is presented.


Risk Assessment Plant Protection Product Standard Scenario Tier Approach Predict Environmental Concentration 
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  1. 1.
    EEC (1991) — Council Directive 91/414/EEC of 15 July 1991 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. O.J. No L230, 19.08.1991, 31 pages.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FOCUS (1995) — Modelling Environmental Fate of Plant Protection Products in the Context of their Authorisation within the European Union. European Commission Document 1694/VI/95. Brussels, 6 pages.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linders, J. (1999) — Report FOCUS — Workshop on Soil/Leaching and Surface Water Scenarios. 3 and 4 September 1998, RIVM, Bilthoven, NL.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adriaanse, P.; Allen, R.; Gouy, V.; Hollis, J.; Hosang, J.; Jarvis, N.; Jarvis, T.; Klein, M.; Layton, R.; Linders, J.; Schäfer, H.; Smeets, L. & Yon, D. (1996) -Surface Water Models and ED Registration of Plant Protection Products. European Commission Document 6476/VI/96, Brussels, 218 pages.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boesten, J.; Businelli, M.; Delmas, A.; Edwards, V.; Helweg, A.; Jones, R.; Klein, M.; Kloskowski, R.; Layton, R.; Marcher, S.; Schäfer, H.; Smeets, I.; Styzcen, M.; Russell, M.; Travis, K.; Walker, A. & Yon, D.; (1995) -Leaching Models and ED Registration. European Commission Document 4952/VI/95, Brussels, 123 pages.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boesten, J.; Helweg, A.; Businelli, M.; Bergstrom, L.; Schäfer, H.; Delmas, A.; Kloskowski, R.; Walker, A.; Travis, K.; Smeets, L.; Jones, R.; Vanderbroeck, V.; Van der linden, A.; Broerse, S.; Klein, M.; Layton, R.; Jacobsen, O-S & Yon, D.; (1996) -Soil Persistence Models and ED Registration. European Commission Document 7617/VI/96, Brussels, 74 pages.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flávia Alfarroba
    • 1
  1. 1.Quinta do MarquêsDirecção-Geral de Protecção das CulturasOeirasPortugal

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