Speaking simultaneously about robots and animals in the title of this contribution seems rather provocative. We are still far away from understanding biological brains and we feel it is useless to attempt efforts to imitate them. On the other hand, the performance of biological systems shows that there exist solutions for all the outstanding features in the context of invariances. Our human visual system impresses by the almost unlimited number of recognition problems which we can easily solve without being conscious of the difficulty. We can rapidly learn objects without training sequences, and we are able to recognize them robustly “at a glance”. We are not even conscious that there could be problems with invariances or 3D vision. Without any zoom we are able to get a panoramic view of an extended scene, and somewhat later we can concentrate on a small detail in highest resolution. Without any doubt, all these features belong to the field of prerational intelligence.


Feature Vector Receptive Field Complex Cell Spatial Frequency Channel Contour Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Hartmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Heinz Nixdorf InstitutUniversität PaderbornGermany

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