Modeling the metabolism of Penicillin-G formation

  • W. M. van Gulik
  • W. A. van Winden
  • J. J. Heijnen


Micro-organisms have been used since many decades for the production of valuable chemicals for food, pharmaceutical and bulk industries. Examples are amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics or alcohols and organic acids (Table VII.1). Improvement of the production properties has been achieved using random classical mutation techniques. The development of recombinant-DNA techniques, the unraveling of complete genomes and genome wide information measurement (DNA chips) have recently opened the possibility of precise modifications in microbial metabolism. The goals of such “rational metabolic engineering” are “de novo” or improved production of desirable chemical compounds. Rational metabolic engineering opens the possibility to use micro-organisms for the production of a wider scope of bulk and fine chemicals. This is called the “cell factory concept”.
Table VII.1

Microbial production processes


Market volume (tons/yr.)



Glutamic acid


Functional proteins


ß-lactam antibiotics




Lactic acid



Dilution Rate Pentose Phosphate Pathway Primary Metabolism Penicillium Chrysogenum Product Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. M. van Gulik
    • 1
  • W. A. van Winden
    • 1
  • J. J. Heijnen
    • 1
  1. 1.Kluyver Laboratory for BiotechnologyTechnical University DelftDelft

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