The Role of Rheology in the Processing of Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastic Composites

  • C. A. Bernardo
  • F. W. J. van Hattum
  • O. S. Carneiro
  • J. M. Maia
Chapter
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NSSE, volume 372)

Abstract

The work done on the processing of thermoplastics reinforced with sub-micron VGCF is reviewed in this chapter. It is feasible, and indeed easy, to produce these composites by means of conventional processing technologies. The main issues affecting the production of good-quality composites are fiber alignment, fiber-matrix adhesion and fiber dispersion. Rheological experiments can give valuable quantitative information on these issues, by illuminating the relationship between melt structure, processing and properties.

Keywords

Surfactant Sulfide Mold Polyethylene Epoxy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dasch, C.J., Baxter, W.J. and Tibbetts, G.G., Thermoplastic composites using nanometer-size vapor-grown carbon fibers, 21st Biennial Conference on Carbon, Buffalo, USA, 1993, pp. 82–83.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tibbetts, G.G. and Devour, M.G., U.S. Patent no. 4,565,684 (1993).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Processing of VGCF-thermoplastic composites with aligned extruded tapes, Dutta, D., Husband, M., Ciminelli, C. and Hager, J.W., 22nd biennial conference on Carbon, San Diego, USA, 1995, pp. 292–293.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carneiro, O.S., Covas, J.A., Bernardo C.A., Caldeira, G., van Hattum, F.W.J., Ting, J.M., Alig, R.L. and Lake, M.L. (1998) Production and assessment of polycarbonate composites reinforced with vapour grown carbon fibresComposites Science and Technology58, 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tibbetts, G.G. and McHugh, J.J. (1999) Mechanical properties of vapor-grown carbon fiber composites with thermoplastic matricesJournal of Materials Research14, 2871–2880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Hattum, F.W.J., LastPage, C.A., Finegan, J.G., Tibbetts, G.G., Alig, R.L. and Lake, M.L. (1999) A study of the thermomechanical properties of carbon fiber-polypropylene compositesPolymer Composites20, 683–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carneiro, O.S. and Maia, J.M., The influence of fibre type and length on the rheological properties of carbon-fibre/polypropylene composites, Proceedings in CD-ROM format of PPS-15, Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang, C., Yi, X., Yui, H., Asai, Sh., Sumita, M. (1998) Morphology and electrical properties of short carbon fibre-filled polymer blends: high density polyethylene/ poly(methyl methacrylate)J. Appl. Polym. Sci.69, 1813–1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patton, R.D., Pittman, C. U. Jr., Wang, L., Hill, J. R. (1999) Vapor grown carbon fiber composites with epoxy and poly(phenylene sulfide) matricesComposites Part A 30, 1081–1091.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caldeira, G., Maia, J.M., Carneiro, O.S., Covas, J.A. and Bernardo, C.A. (1998) Production and characterization of vapor grown carbon fiber-polycarbonate compositesPolymer Composites19, 147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta, R.K. (1994) Particulate suspensions, in S.G. Advani (ed.)Flow and Rheology of Polymer Composites ManufacturingElsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maia, J.M. and Carneiro, O.S. ( 1999) The influence of matrix-fibre interactions on the rheological properties of carbon-fibre composites of thermoplastic matrix, 2nd Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 99, Guimaráes, Portugal 1999pp.455–458.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mills, N.J. (1971) Rheology of filled polymersJournal of Applied Polymer Science15, 2791–2805.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yanovski, Y.G. (1993)Polymer Rheology: Theory and PracticeChapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Bernardo
    • 1
  • F. W. J. van Hattum
    • 2
  • O. S. Carneiro
    • 1
  • J. M. Maia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Polymer EngineeringUniversidade do MinhoPortugal
  2. 2.Centre of Lightweight StructuresTUD-TNOthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations