Modeling of Bending Actuators Based on Functionally Gradient Materials
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Piezoelectric bending actuators are frequently used when large deflections and low forces are required. Typically, two thin sheets with different piezoelectric coefficients are joined by a glue layer . The glue layer may peel off or crack during high temperature changes. Additionally, during bending large mechanical stresses occur especially at the interface between the sheets. This may lead to a nucleation and propagation of microcracks, or a mechanical depolarization of the material. All these phenomena can reduce the lifetime and reliability of the actuators.
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