Offshore Permafrost and Oil and Gas Field Development

  • Arne Instanes
  • Marina Leibman
  • Evgeny S. Melnikov
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (ASEN2, volume 76)

Abstract

Experience from oil and gas field development in the Beaufort Sea and Barents Sea has clearly shown that there is a need for mapping of offshore permafrost and better understanding of the physical properties of offshore permafrost in order to develop cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies fir the development of new fields. The most promising area for future offshore Arctic oil and gas field development is the Barents Sea including the shallow waters of the Pechora Sea where development is presently on the way. Russian researchers and institutes have studied offshore permafrost for more than 60 years and represent vast knowledge and experience. Modern Arctic offshore geotechnical soil investigations have been and can be carried out by Russian companies.

Keywords

Porosity Hydrate Petroleum Drilling Beach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sanderson, T. J. O. (1988) Ice mechanics — risk to offshore structures. Graham and Trotman Ltd., London Great Britain.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gerwick Jr, B. C. (1990) Recent development in structural concepts for Arctic ocean platforms. Proceedings of the International Conference on Development and Commercial Utilization of Technologies in Polar Regions (Polartech’ 90), Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 428–441.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang, J. L. and Peters, D. B. (1985) Overview of artificial island design and construction in the Arctic. Proceedings of the conference Arctic’ 85 — Civil Engineering in the Arctic Offshore.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Instanes, A. (1993) An experimental study of the mechanical properties of spray ice. PhD thesis 1993:30, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway. 267 p.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osterkamp T. E. (1986) A review of subsea permafrost conditions along Alaska’s coast. Proceedings of Workshop on Subsea Permafrost. Tech. Mem. No. 139, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sellmann, P. V. and Hopkins, D. M. (1983) Subsea permafrost distribution on the Alaskan shelf. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on permafrost, pp. 75–82, Fairbanks, Alaska.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sackinger, W. M., Barnes, P. W. Harrison W. D. et al. (1976) Problems and priorities in ofishore permafrost research. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baranov, I. Ya. (1977) Geocryological map of the USSR, scale 1∶5,000,000. Moscow: GUGK, 4 p.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grigoriev, N.F. (1966) Permafrost of Yakutian coastal zone. Moscow: Nauka, 180 p.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grigoriev, N.F. (1987) Cryolithozone of littoral near western Yamal. Permafrost Institute Press, Yakutsk, Russia. 112 p.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Soloviev, V.A., Ginsburg, G. D., Telepnev, E. V. and Mikhailyuk, Yu.N. (1987) Cryogeothermal conditions and gas-hydrates within the interior of the Arctic Ocean. Leningrad, Russia. 150 p.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fartyshev, A.I. (1993) Features of Laptev Sea offshore permafrost. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 136 p.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Melnikov, V.P. and Spesivtsev, V.l. (1995) Engineering-geological conditions of Barents-Kara shelf. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Siberian Press RAS, 198 p.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baulin, V.V. ed., (1996) Natural conditions of Baydaratskaya Guba. Preliminary results of studies for submarine construction. Moscow: IPO “Ecosystem”, 234 p.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lovøe, V., Elverhøi, A., Antonsen, P., Solheim, A., Butenko, G., Gregersen, O. and Liestøl, O. (1990) Submarine permafrost and gas hydrates in the northern Barents Sea. Norwegian Polar Research Institute. Report no. 56, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Romanovskii, N.N. (1993) Principles of cryogenesis of lithosphere. Textbook. Moscow University Publisher.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Danilov, I.D. and Zhigarev, L. A. (1977) Frozen ground of Arctic shelf. Frozen ground and snow cover. Moscow: Nauka, p. 17–26.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soloviev, V. A (1983) Ofishore cryolithozone and stages of its evolution. Principle problems in palaeogeography of Late Cenozoic in Arctic. Leningrad: Nedra, p. 185–192.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Danilov, I.D. (1996) Arctic Ocean as a separate cryogenic natural system. Proceedings of the First Conference of Russian Geocryologists, 3–5 June 1996, Moscow State University. Vol. I, p. 193–203.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhigarev, L.A. (1981) Cryolithozone dynamics of East Siberian Sea and Chuckotsk Sea in Pleistocene and Holocene // Permafrost dynamics history of Eurasia. Moscow: Nauka, p. 181–191.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hunter, J. A. M. (1983) Geophysical techniques for subsea permafrost investigations. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on permafrost, pp. 88–89, Fairbanks, Alaska.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gritsenko, I. and Bondarev, V. (1994) Subsea permafrost, gas hydrates and gas pockets in cenozoic sediments of Barents, Pechora and Kara Seas, Proceedings of the 14th World Petroleum Congress, pp. 341–348.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nixon, J. F. (1991) Thaw-subsidence effects on offshore pipelines. Journal of ColdRegions Engineering 5(1) pp. 28–39.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gogyainov, N.N. (ed.) (1992) Usage of seismic-acoustic methods in hydrogeology and engineering geology. Moscow: Nedra, p. 135–146.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gregersen, O. and Eidsmoen, T. (1998) Permafrost conditions in the shore area at Svalbard. NGI Publication No. 174, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Okko, O. T., Gritsenko, I. I. Bondarev, V. N., Rokos, S. I., Loktev, A. S. and Kostin, D. A. (1996) Shallow seismic investigations to study hazardous sub-bottom permafrost and gas in eastern Pechora Sea. AMIGE publication, Murmansk.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dlugach, A., Loktev, A., Okko, O. and Rokos, S. (1995) Soil mechanical properties and in-shu temperatures from Arctic ofishore CPT-data. Proceedings of International Symposium on Cone Penetration testing, Linkoping, Sweden, Vol. 2, pp. 167–172.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Energy Day. (1997) Russian Tour de Force in the Arctic. Lloyd’s list Energy Day, September 11,1997.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams, P. J. (1989) Pipelines and Permafrost — Science in a Cold Climate. Carleton University press, Ottawa, Canada. 129 p.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dubikov, G. I., Figarov, N. and Tsourikov, A. (1994) Subsea permafrost and gas pipeline construction of the Baydaratskaya Bay crossing in Siberia, Russia. Proceedings of the 7th International Cold Regions Engineering Speciality Conference, Edmonton, Alberta, 7–9 March 1994, pp. 843–863.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neizvestnov, Ya. V., Kurbatov, G. I. and Filipov, B. V. (1996) Geocryological problems of for design and construction of pipelines at the Arctic shelfr. Proceedings of the First Russian Geocryologist Meeting, 3–5 June 1996, Moscow State University, Vol. 3, pp. 107–113.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mokkelbost, K. H. and Strandvik, S. O. (1998) Development of NGI’s deep-water gas probe. Proceedings of the International Conference “Technology for deep-sea geological investigations: Development, application and results”, Society for Underwater Technology (SUT), London, Great Britain, November 1998. In press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spesivtsev, V. I. (1987) Results of studies on the problem of ice-stable platforms within the shallow water zone of the Arctic seas. Floating and stationary technical means of marine oil-gas deposit development. Riga, p. 35–37.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Instanes
    • 1
  • Marina Leibman
    • 2
  • Evgeny S. Melnikov
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)OsloNORWAY
  2. 2.Earth Cryosphere InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRUSSIA

Personalised recommendations