Status of Neutrino Physics

  • J. W. F. Valle
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAII, volume 42)

Abstract

The solar (Suzuki:2000) and atmospheric (Sobel:2000; Becker-Szendy:1992) neutrino data provide the two milestones indicating physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Of particular importance has been the confirmation in 1998 by the Super-Kamiokande (SK, for short) collaboration of the zenith-angle-dependent deficit of atmospheric neutrinos. Altogether the data provide a strong evidence for v e and V μ conversions, respectively. Neutrino conversions are a natural consequence of theories beyond the Standard Model (Valle: 1991). The first example is oscillations of low-mass neutrinos. While the theoretical understanding of the origin of neutrino masses is still lacking, there is a variety of attractive options available. Most likely, the exceptional nature of neutrinos as the only electrically neutral fermions in the SM underlies the smallness of their mass, as it would be associated with the violation of lepton number. Indeed in gauge theories one expects, on fundamental grounds, neutrinos to be Majorana fermions (Schechter:1980a). This is the generic situation in actual models. It will be surprising indeed if massive neutrinos turn out to be Dirac particles, like the quarks. Lepton number violation would imply processes such as neutrinoless double beta decay (Schechter: 1982), novel CP violation effects (Schechter: 1980a; Schechter.1981a), and/or neutrino electromagnetic properties (Schechter: 1981b), so far unobserved. Present data are compatible with either hierarchical or quasi-degenerate neutrino masses. While solar neutrino rates favour the small mixing angle MSW oscillations (Wolfenstein: 1978; Smirnov:1986), present data on the recoil-electron spectrum prefer the large mixing solutions. When interpreted in terms of neutrino oscillations, the observed atmospheric neutrino zenith-angle-dependent deficit strongly suggests the existence of to oscillations with maximal mixing (Gonzalez-Garcia:2001). Adding information from reactor experiments one concludes that the third angle amongst the three neutrinos is small (Apollonio:1999). Thus, altogether, we have the intriguing possibility that, unlike the case of quarks, neutrino mixing is bi-maximal (Barger:1998; Davidson: 1998; deGouvea:2000; Chankowski:2000fp; Mira:2000gg) which could be tested at the upcoming long-baseline experiments or at a neutrino factory experiment (Quigg:1999) or at the proposed KamLAND experiment (DeBraeckeleer:2000).

Keywords

Chlorine Peris Stein Calorimeter Gallium 

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. F. Valle
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular — CSIC/U. de València, Astroparticle and High Energy Physics GroupEdificio de Institutos de PaternaValenciaSpain

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