Strategic Alertness and Expanded Awareness within Sophisticated Conceptions of Teaching

  • Noel Entwistle
  • Paul Walker
Chapter

Abstract

Recent research into teaching in higher education has established what appears to be a nested hierarchy of conceptions of teaching moving from teacher-focused to student-focussed categories. This chapter draws parallels with the intellectual development of students to suggest a process of expanding awareness in academic staff of the relation between learning and teaching, which leads to the strategic alertness to ‘teachable moments’ as they occur in the classroom. A case study of one lecturer’s changing conceptions of learning and teaching is presented in detail and related to the literature both of the nature of conceptions and schoolteachers’ knowledge and beliefs about teaching. This analysis provides a fuller description of what may underlie sophisticated conceptions of teaching and leads to a discussion about how conceptual change may be encouraged in academic staff.

Key words

Higher education conceptions of teaching conceptual change staff development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C. D. B. (1997). Enabling and shaping understanding through tutorials. In F. Marton, D. J. Hounsell & N. J. Entwistle (eds.), The Experience of Learning (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press (pp. 184–197).Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  3. Ballantyne, R., Bain, J., & Packer, J. (1997). Reflecting on University Teaching: Academic Stories. Canberra: Dept of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs.Google Scholar
  4. Bowden, J., & Marton, F. (1998). The University of Learning. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  5. Boud, D. and Walker, D. (1998) Promoting reflection in professional courses: the challenge of context. Studies in Higher Education, 23, 191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Edelman, G. (1992). Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of Mind. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  7. Elliott, R., & Calderhead, J. (1995). Mentoring for teacher development: possibilities and caveats. In T. Kerry & A. Shelton (eds), Issues in Mentoring. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Entwistle, N. J. (1988). Styles of Learning and Teaching. London: Fulton.Google Scholar
  9. Entwistle, N. J. (1997). Contrasting perspectives on learning. In F. Marton, D. J. Hounsell & N. J. Entwistle (eds.), The Experience of Learning (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press (pp. 3–22).Google Scholar
  10. Entwistle, N. J. (1998a). Improving teaching through research on student learning. In J. J. F. Forest (ed.) University Teaching: International Perspectives. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  11. Entwistle, N. J. (1998b). Supporting students’ frameworks for conceptual understanding: knowledge objects and their implications. In C. Rust (ed.), Improving Student Learning: Improving Students as Learners. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University, The Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development (pp. 206–214).Google Scholar
  12. Entwistle, N. J. (2000). Approaches to studying and levels of understanding: the influences of teaching and assessment. In J. C. Smart (ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (Vol. XV). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  13. Entwistle, N. J., Skinner, D. J., Entwistle, D. M., & Orr, S. M. (1999). Conceptions of ‘good teaching’ as learning outcomes. In C. Rust (ed.), Improving Student Learning Outcomes. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University, The Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development (pp. 191–201).Google Scholar
  14. Forest, J. J. F. (1998). University teachers and instruction: important themes for a global discussion. In J. J. F. Forest (ed.), University Teaching: International Perspectives. New York: Garland (pp. 35–72).Google Scholar
  15. Grimmett, P. P., & Mackinnon, A. M. (1992). Craft knowledge and the education of teachers. Review of Educational Research, 18, 385–456.Google Scholar
  16. Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 835–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hativa, N. (1998). Lack of clarity in university teaching: a case study. Higher Education, 36, 353–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heath, R. (1964). The Reasonable Adventurer. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  19. Ho, A. (1998) A conceptual change staff development programme: Effects as perceived by participants International Journal of Academic Development, 3, 24–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research 67, 88–140.Google Scholar
  21. Hodgson, V. (1997). Lectures and the experience of relevance. In F. Marton, D. J. Hounsell, & N. J. Entwistle (eds.), The Experience of Learning (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press (pp. 159–171).Google Scholar
  22. Kember, D. (1997). A reconceptualisation of the research into university academics’ conceptions of teaching. Learning and Instruction, 7, 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kember, D. (1998). Teaching beliefs and their impact on students’ approach to learning. In B. Dart & G. Boulton-Lewis (eds.), Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  24. Leinhardt, G. (1990). Capturing craft knowledge in teaching. Educational Researcher, 19(2), 18–25.Google Scholar
  25. Liew, L. & Treagust, D. A Predict-Observe-Explain teaching sequence for learning about students’ understanding of heat and expansion of liquids, Australian Science Teachers’ Journal, 41(1).Google Scholar
  26. McAlpine, L., Weston, C., Beauchamp, C., Wiseman C., and Beauchamp, J. (1999). Building a metacognitive model of reflection. Higher Education, 37, 105–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marton, F. (1994). Phenomenography. In T. Husen, and N. Postlethwaite (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (pp. 4424–4429). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  28. Marton, F. and Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Marton, F., Dall’Alba, G., & Beaty, E. (1993). Conceptions of learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 19, 277–300.Google Scholar
  30. Marton, F., & Säljö, R. (1997). Approaches to learning. In F. Marton, D. J. Hounsell, & N. J. Entwistle (eds.), The Experience of Learning (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press (pp. 39–58).Google Scholar
  31. Parlett, M. R. & Hamilton, D. Evaluation as Illumination: a New Approach to the Study of Innovatory Programmes. Unpublished report, 1972. (Reprinted in D. Hamilton et al., Beyond the Numbers Game, Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1977).Google Scholar
  32. Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  33. Perry, W. G. (1988). Different worlds in the same classroom. In P. Ramsden (ed.), Improving Learning: New Perspectives. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  34. Phillips, D. C. (1995). The good, the bad, and the ugly: The many faces of constructivism. Educational Researcher, 24, 7, 5–12.Google Scholar
  35. Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., & Taylor, P. (1994). A phenomenographic study of academics’ conceptions of science learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 4, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Säljö, R. (1979). Learning in the Learner’s Perspective. I. Some Common-sense Conceptions. (Report 76). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg, Department of Education.Google Scholar
  37. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 114–135.Google Scholar
  38. Trigwell, K. & Prosser, M. (1997). Towards an understanding of individual acts of teaching and learning. Higher Education Research and Development, 16, 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers’ approaches to teaching and students’ approaches to learning. Higher Education 37, 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N., Van Werven, H. I., & Dekkers, H. (1997). Teachers’ craft knowledge and curriculum innovation in higher engineering education. Higher Education, 34, 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Walker, P. J. (1995) Computer-based Presentation of First-year Physics Lectures. New Academic 4(3), 12–14Google Scholar
  42. Walker, P. J. (1996) Taking Students by Surprise. New Academic, 5(3), 12–16Google Scholar
  43. Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience. London: Little, Brown & Co.Google Scholar
  44. Wittrock, M. (1986). (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd ed.). New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  45. Woods, P., & Jeffrey, B. (1996). Teachable Moments. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noel Entwistle
  • Paul Walker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations