Improper, Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bond: Theory and Experiment
Under certain conditions the interaction of atoms leads to formation of molecules. This type of interaction is relatively strong, with maximum of attraction between specific pairs of atoms. These pairs of atoms form bonds. The bond character ranges from covalent to ionic over a spectrum of polar bonds. Weaker bonds, which keep atoms, groups of atoms or molecules together exist also. One of the strongest and most common is the hydrogen bond (H-bond). Although it is not easy to define H-bonds to include all the features ascribed to them by the different branches of science, these H-bonds always describe an attractive interaction between two species (atoms, groups, molecules) in a structural arrangement where the hydrogen atom, which is covalently bound to one of the species, is placed in between these species. The H-bond plays a key role in chemistry, physics and biology and its consequences, such as the properties of liquid and solid water, were observed before the bond was identified and named [1-3]. The term “hydrogen bond” was first used probably by Linus Pauling in his paper on the nature of chemical bond . H-bonds are responsible  for the structure and properties of water, an essential compound for life, as a solvent and in its various phases. Further, H-bonds also play a key role in determining the shapes, properties and functions of biomolecules.
KeywordsBlue Shift Stabilization Energy Lone Electron Pair Proton Donor Proton Acceptor
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