Building Peaceful Co-Operation into The BTWC Verification Protocol

  • Malcolm Dando
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (ASDT, volume 36)


Evidence continues to accumulate, from around the world, of the proliferation of biological weapons.1,2 This is increasing the desire of states to strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), but whilst the core elements of a BTWC Protocol will be concerned with compliance, that is with declaration of the most relevant facilities, non-challenge visits to ensure the validity of such declarations, and challenge inspections in relation to compliance concerns, I believe that a number of other elements are required. One in particular involves the mandate3 given to the Ad Hoc Group negotiating the Protocol, which included the requirement to consider “[s]pecific measures designed to ensure effective implementation of Article X”. Article X of the BTWC is concerned with international co-operation. It seems most unlikely that an effective, universally implemented, Protocol will come about unless this aspect of the Convention is properly fulfilled in the Protocol.


State Parti Briefing Paper Biological Weapon Official Documentation Peaceful Purpose 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malcolm Dando
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Peace StudiesUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

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