Building Peaceful Co-Operation into The BTWC Verification Protocol

  • Malcolm Dando
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (ASDT, volume 36)

Abstract

Evidence continues to accumulate, from around the world, of the proliferation of biological weapons.1,2 This is increasing the desire of states to strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), but whilst the core elements of a BTWC Protocol will be concerned with compliance, that is with declaration of the most relevant facilities, non-challenge visits to ensure the validity of such declarations, and challenge inspections in relation to compliance concerns, I believe that a number of other elements are required. One in particular involves the mandate3 given to the Ad Hoc Group negotiating the Protocol, which included the requirement to consider “[s]pecific measures designed to ensure effective implementation of Article X”. Article X of the BTWC is concerned with international co-operation. It seems most unlikely that an effective, universally implemented, Protocol will come about unless this aspect of the Convention is properly fulfilled in the Protocol.

Keywords

Tuberculosis Marketing Malaria Microbe Ghost 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Sellos, C. (1999) Lessons from Iraq on bioweapons. Nature, 398, 18 March, 187–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alibek, K. and Handeman, S. (1999) Biohazard. Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    United Nations (1994) Special Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Final Report, BWC/SP.CONF/l, 19-30 September, Geneva.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goldblat, J. and Bernauer, T. (1991) Appendix III. Text of the Final Declaration of the First Review Conference. In The Third Review of the Biological Weapons Convention: Issues and Proposals, BWC/CONF. 1/10, UNIDIR, Geneva, April.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Department of Environment, Transport and Regions (1998) First Darwin Report: The Darwin Initiative for the Survival of the Species. HMSO, London, April.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rogers, P. and Dando, M. R. (1992) A Violent Peace: Global Security After the Cold War. Brassey’s, London.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hughes, Lt. General P. M. (1999) Prepared Statement by the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Hearings on Global Threats and Challenges: The Decades Ahead. Senate Armed Services Committee, US Congress, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Childers, E. (1994) Introduction in E. Childers (ed.), Challenges to the United Nations: Building a Safer World. Catholic Institute for International Relations/St. Martins Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dando, M. R. (1998) Biotechnology in a peaceful world economy. Pages 25–43 in E. Geissler et al. (eds), Conversion of Former BTW Facilities. Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olshansky, S. J. el al. (1997) Infectious diseases — new and ancient threats to world health. Population Bulletin, 52(2), 1–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Price-Smith, A. T. (1999) Ghosts of Kigali: Infectious disease and global security in the coming century. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Washington D.C., February.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Official documentation and commentary on the Ad Hoc Group negotiations can be found on the joint SIPRI/Bradford worldwideweb site at www brad ac uk /acad/sbtwc>Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    New Zealand and Netherlands (1990) Discussion Paper RWC Article X/Protocol Article VII. BWC/AD HOC GROUP/WP.362. United Nations, Geneva, 6 April.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Australia and United Kingdom (1999) Article VII — Proposals. BWC/AD HOC GROUP/WP.363. United Nations, Geneva, 1 April.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nalhanson, V., Darvell, M and Dando, M.R (1999) Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity. Harwood Academic Press, London (for the British Medical Association).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berns, K. I. et al. (1998) Preventing the misuse of microorganisms: The role of the American Society for Microbiology in protecting against biological weapons. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 24(3), 273–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Woodall, J. (1998) The role of computer networking in investigating unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of biological and toxin weapons use. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 24(3), 255–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rogers, P. Whitby, S. and Dando, M. R. (1999) The grim reapers. The Guardian (Environment Section), 26 May, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malcolm Dando
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Peace StudiesUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

Personalised recommendations