Advertisement

Monitoring Lichens for Conservation: Red Lists and Conservation Action Plans

  • C. Scheidegger
  • T. Goward
Part of the NATO Science Series book series (NAIV, volume 7)

Abstract

Lichen-forming fungi are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. The mycobiont coexists with one or more algal or cyanobacterial photobionts. Conservation biology of lichens deals, therefore, with more than one organism, although it is the fungal partner, or mycobiont, which is generally the target for conservation. It is also the mycobiont which determines the systematic position of lichens.

Keywords

Lichen Species Epiphytic Lichen Population Viability Analysis Threat Category Crustose Lichen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahti, T. (1977) Lichens of the boreal coniferous zone, in M.R.D. Seaward (ed.), Lichen Ecology, Academic Press, London, pp. 145–181.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akçakaya, H.R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M.A., Keith, D.A., Mace, G.M., and Todd, C.R. (2000) Making consistent IUCN classifications under uncertainty, Conservation Biology 14, 1001–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aptroot, A., van Dobben, H., van Herk, C., and van Ommering, G. (1998) Bedreigde en kwetsbare korstmossen in Nederland. Toelichling op de Rode Lijst, Rapport IKC Natuurbeheer, 29, Informatie-en Kennis Centrum Natuurbeheer, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aptroot, A., van Herk, C., van Dobben, H., van den Boom, P., Brand, A., and Spier, L. (1998) Bedreigde en kwetsbare korstmossen in Nederland: basisrapport met voorstel voor de Rode Lijst, Buxbaumiella 46, 1–101.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aronsson, M., Hallingbäck, T., and Mattsson, J.E. (1995) Rödlistade växter i Sverige 1995 [Swedish Red Data Book of Plants 1995], ArtDatabanken, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arup, U., Ekman, S., Kärnefelt, I., and Mattsson, J. (1997) Skyddsvarda Lavar i Sydvästra Sverige [Red-listed lichens and changes in the lichenflora of southwestern Sweden], SBF-Forlaget, LundGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beschel, R. (1958) Lichenometrical studies in west Greenland, Arctic 11 (4), 254.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carballal, R., Paz Bermudez, G., and Valcarcel, C.P. (1999) Datos para una “lista roja” de macroliquenes en Galicia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chabanenko, S.I. (1995) Rare and vulnerable species of lichens in the southern part of the Russian Far East — Primorye and Sakhalin Regions, Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft 70, 147–152.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Church, J.M., Coppins, B.J., Gilbert, O.L., James, P.W., and Stewart, N.F. (1996) Red data books of Britain and Ireland: lichens vol. 1: Britain, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clerc, P. (1999) Les lichens bioindicateurs de la pollution de l’air dans Ie bassin lémanique, in C. Bertola, C. Goumand and J.-F. Rubin (eds.), Découvrir le Léman 100 ans aprés François-Alphonse Forel, Editions Slatkine, Genève, pp. 123–138.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cochran, W.G. (1977) Sampling techniques, John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    COSEWIC (2000) Canadian species at risk. Environment Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dietrich, M. and Scheidegger, C. (1997) A representative survey of frequency of epiphytic lichens at the regional and national levels and its use for the Red List of Switzerland, in R. Türk and R. Zorer (eds.), Progress and Problems in Lichenology in the Nineties — IAL 3, Bibliotheca. Lichenologica 68, J. Cramer, Berlin, pp. 145–154.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dietrich, M., Stofer, S., Scheidegger, C., Frei, M., Groner, U., Keller, C., Roth, I., and Steinmeier, C. (2000) Data sampling of rare and common species for compiling a Red List of epiphytic lichens. Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, 75, 369–380.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esseen, P.A., Renhora, K.E., and Pettersson, R.B. (1996) Epiphytic lichen biomass in managed and old-growth boreal forests: Effect of branch quality, Ecological Applications 6, 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Faltynowicz, W. (1990) Lichen mapping in Poland, Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Ser. A 456, 41–42.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Galloway, D.J. (1996) Biogeography, in T. Nash III (ed.), Lichen Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 199–216.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gärdenfors, U. (1996) Application of IUCN Red List categories on a regional scale, in J. Baillie and B. Groombridge (eds.), 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals, IUCN, Gland, pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gärdenfors, U. (2000). Rödlistade arter i Sverige — The 2000 Red List of Swedish Species. Vol. 2000, ArtDatabanken SLU, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gärdenfors, U., Rodriguez, J.P., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hyslop, C., Mace, G., Molur, S., and Poss, S. (1999) Draft guidelines for the application of IUCN Red List criteria at national and regional levels, Species 31/32, 58–70.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goward, T. (1996) Status report on the oldgrowth specklebelly, Pseudocyphellaria rainierensis, in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goward, T. (1996) Status report on the seaside bone, Hypogymnia heterophylla, in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goward, T. (1996) Status report on the seaside centipede, Heterodermia sitchensis, in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goward, T., Brodo, I., and Clayden, S. (1998) Rare Lichens of Canada. A Review and Provisional Listing, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Groombridge, B. (1992) Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s living resources. A Report compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hawksworth, D.L. and Seaward, M. (1990) Twenty-five years of lichen mapping in Great Britain and Ireland, Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Ser. A 456, 5–10.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hellawell, J.M. (1991) Development of a rationale for monitoring, in B. Goldsmith (ed.), Monitoring for conservation and ecology, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Inoue, M. (1998) Our continual project on Japanese red data lichens. Lichen — News Bulletin of the Lichenological Society of Japan, 11 (1), 172.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    IUCN (1994) IUCN red list categories. As approved by the 40th meeting of the IUCN council, IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    IUCN (2001) IUCN red list categories. Prepared by the IUCN species survival commission. As approved by the 51th meeting of the IUCN council, IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacobsen, P. (1997) Die Flechten Schleswig-Holsteins — Rote Liste, Landesamt für Natur und Umwelt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kashiwadani, H. and Kurokawa, S. (1995) Threatened lichens in Japan, in C. Scheidegger, P.A. Wolseley and G. Thor (eds.), Conservation Biology of Lichenised Fungi, Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, pp. 141–146.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuusinen, M., Kaipiainen, H., Puolasmaa, A., and Ahti, T. (1995) Threatened lichens in Finland, Cryptogamic Botany 5 (3), 247–251.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lange, O.L. (1990) Twenty-three years of growth measurements on the crustose lichen Caloplaca aurantia in the central Negev Desert (Israel), Israel Journal of Botany, Basic and Applied Plant Sciences 39, 383–394.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liška, J. (1996) Cervene seznamy lisejniku [Red Lists of lichens], Severoceskou prirodou, Litomerice, Suppl. 9, 53–59.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liška, J. (1990) The mapping of lichens in Bohemia: aims, problems and present state, Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Ser. A 456, 43–52.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Litterski, B., Brandt, B., and Dieminger, J. (1996) Rote Liste der gefährdeten Flechten Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, Der Minister für Landwirtschaft und Naturschutz des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schwerin.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maass, W. (2001) Status report on Erioderma pedicellatum in Canada, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McCune, B., Dey, J., Peck, J., Cassell, D., Heiman, K., Will-Wolf, S., and Neitlich, P. (1997) Repeatability of community data: species richness versus gradient scores in large-scale lichen studies, The Bryologist 100 (1), 40–46.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McHugh, S. (1998). A study of the endangered lichen Erioderma pedicellatum in Lockyer’s Waters, Newfoundland, Memorial University, St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, St. John’s.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Motiejunaite, J. (1999) Checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Lithuania, Botanica Lithuanica 5 (3), 251–269.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nicholopoulos, J. (1999) The endangered species Listing Program, Endangered Species Bulletin 24, 6–9.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pfefferkorn, V. and Türk, R. (1997) Rote Liste der im Bundesland Vorarlberg aktuell gefährdeten Flechtenarten, Vorarlberger Naturschau 3, 217–229.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pisut, I. (1999) Chranene druhy machorastov a lisajnikov v Slovenskej republike [Bryophytes and lichens protected by law in the Slovak Republic], Bryonora 24, 27–28.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rabinowitz, D. (1981) Seven forms of rarity, in H. Synge (ed.), The biological aspects of rare plant conservation, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 205–217.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Randlane, T. (1998) Red List of Estonian macrolichens [Eesti suursamblike punane nimekiri], Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 32, 75–79.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rose, F. (1976) Lichenological indicators of age and environmental continuity in woodlands, in D.H. Brown, D.L. Hawksworth and R.H. Bailey (eds.), Lichenology: Progress and Problems, Academic Press, London, pp. 279–307.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rose, F. (1992) Temperate forest management: its effects on bryophyte and lichen floras and habitats, in J.W. Bates and A. Fanner (eds.), Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 211–233.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scheidegger, C. (1995) Early development of transplanted isidioid soredia of Lobaria pulmonaria in an endangered population, Lichenologist 27, 361–374.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scheidegger, C. (1998) Erioderma pedicellatum: a critically endangered lichen species, Species: Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission IUCN 1998 (June), 68–69.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Scheidegger, C., Clerc, P., Dietrich, M., Fiore, A.-M., Frei, M., Groner, U., Keller, C., Roth, I., Stofer, S., and Wildi, E. (in prep.): Reduction in national populations of epiphytic lichens assessed from herbarium observations and a national surveillance.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Scheidegger, C., Dietrich, M., Frei, M., Groner, U., Keller, C., Roth, I., Stofer, S., and Clerc, P. (2001) Epiphytische Flechten der Schweiz, in C. Scheidegger, P. Clerc, S. Lussi and F. Cordillot (eds.), Rote Liste der bäum-und erdbewohnenden Flechten der Schweiz, BUWAL, WSL, Bern (in press).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scheidegger, C., Flachsmann, S., Zoller, S., and Frey, B. (1997) Naturschutzbiologie bei Flechten: Konzepte und Projekte, Kleine Senckenbergische Reihe 27, 167–175.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scheidegger, C., Frey, B., and Walser, J.-C. (1998) Reintroduction and augmentation of populations of the endangered Lobaria pulmonaria: methods and concepts, in S. Kondratyuk and B.J. Coppins (eds.), Lobarion lichens as indicators of the primeval forests of the eastern Carpathians, Phytosociocentre, Kiev, pp. 33–52.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheidegger, C., Stofer, S., Frei, M., Groner, U., Dietrich, M., Roth, I., and Keller, C. (1999). Biodiversitätsmonitoring Schweiz: Operationalisieren von Z9 Flechten, WSL, Birmensdorf, pp. 12.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schöller, H., Cezanne, R., and Eichler, M. (1996) Rote Liste der Flechten (Lichenes) Hessens, Hessisches Ministerium des Innern und für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Naturschutz, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Scott, C.T. and Köhl, M. (1993) A method for comparing sampling design alternatives for extensive inventories, Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft 68, 1–62.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Selva, S. (1998) Searching for Caliciales in the Adirondacks of New York, in M.G. Glenn, R.C. Harris, R. Dirig and M.S. Cole (eds.), Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson, Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, pp. 337–344.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shibuichi, H. (1998) Red data list of lichens in Saitama Prefecture, Lichen — News Bulletin of the Lichenological Society of Japan 11(2), 25–26.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sutherland, W.J. (2000) The conservation handbook: research, management and policy, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Thor, G. (1996) ICCL Preliminary Global Red List of Lichens, http://www.dha.slu.se/guest/global3.htm, electronic document.
  63. 63.
    Thor, G. (1995) Red Lists — aspects of their compilation and use in lichen conservation, in C. Scheidegger, P.A. Wolseley and G. Thor (eds.), Conservation Biology of Lichenised Fungi, Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, pp. 29–39.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Thor, G. (1997) Red-listed lichens in Sweden: habitats, threats, protection, and indicator value in boreal coniferous forests, Biodiversity and Conservation 7, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thor, G. (1999) The Swedish lichen Red List 1995, Graphis Scripta 11 (1).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thor, G. and Arvidsson, L. (1999) Rödlistade lavar i Sverige: Artfakta, ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tønsberg, T., Gauslaa, Y., Haugan, R., Holien, H., and Timdal, E. (1996) The threatened macrolichens of Norway — Sommerfeltia 23, 1–258.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Türk, R. (1990) Lichen mapping in Austria, Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Ser. A 456, 67–72.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Türk, R. (1996) Rote Liste der Flechten Salzburgs, Naturschutz Beiträge, 18, Amt der Salzburger Landesregierung, Salzburg.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Türk, R., Breuss, O., and Üblagger, J. (1998) Die Flechten im Bundesland Niederösterreich, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus dem Niederösterreichischen Landesmuseum 11, 1–315.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Türk, R. and Hafellner, J. (1999) Flechten. Rote Liste gefährdeter Flechten (Lichenes) Österreichs. 2. Fassung, in H. Nikifeld (ed.), Rote Listen gefährdeter Pflanzen Österreichs, Austria Medien Service, Graz, pp. 187–228.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Urmi, E., Schnyder, N., and Geissler, P. (1990) A new method in floristic mapping as applied to an inventory of Swiss bryophytes, in U. Bohn and R. Neuhäusl (eds.), Vegetation and flora of temperate zones, SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague, pp. 21–32.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Usher, M. (1991) Scientific requirements of a monitoring programme, in B. Goldsmith (ed.), Monitoring for conservation and ecology, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wirth, V. (1995) Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, 1 & 2, Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wirth, V. (1999) Gefährdete Flechtenbiotope in Mitteleuropa, Natur und Museum 129 (1), 12–21.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wirth, V., Schöller, H., Scholz, P., Ernst, G., Feuerer, T., Gnuchtel, A., Hauck, M., Jacobsen, P., John, V., and Litterski, B. (1996) Rote Liste der Flechten (Lichenes) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde 28, 307–368.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wolseley, P.A. (1995) A global perspective on the status of lichens and their conservation, Mitteilungen der Eidgenössischen Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, Birmensdorf, Switzerland 70, 11–27.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zoller, S., Lutzoni, F., and Scheidegger, C. (1999) Genetic variation within and among populations of the threatened lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in Switzerland and implications for its conservation, Molecular Ecology 8, 2049–2060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Scheidegger
    • 1
  • T. Goward
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Swiss Federal Research InstituteWSLBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Herbarium, Department of BotanyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Edgewood BlueClearwaterCanada

Personalised recommendations