Teacher Leadership, Reflective Practice, and School Improvement

  • Chris Day
  • Alma Harris
Chapter
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE, volume 8)

Abstract

Effective principalship has for many years been widely accepted as being a key constituent in achieving school improvement (Barth, 1988, 1990; Beck & Murphy, 1993; Sergiovanni, 1990; Southworth, 1990; Blase & Anderson, 1995; Caldwell & Spinks, 1992; Duignan & Macpherson, 1992; Fullan 1992b; Hodgkinson, 1991; Leithwood, 1992; Leithwood, Begley, & Cousins, 1992; Leithwood & Jantzi, 1990). Effective principals are leaders whose work transforms the schools in which they work (Leithwood, et al., 1999; McBeath, 1998; Day, et al., 2000b; Harris, et al., 2001). Recently, both the school effectiveness and growing school improvement research movements have highlighted the importance of leadership in successful school development and change (Teddlie & Reynolds, 2000; Sammons 2000; Mortimore, 2000); and researchers within these movements have confirmed that effective principals are those who focus primarily on promoting high expectations, teacher motivation and the quality of learning and teaching in the classroom (Eraut, 1994; Hargreaves, 1994; Sammons, et al., 1995; Fullan, 2001; Sergiovanni, 2001).

Keywords

Europe Posit Harness Metaphor Milton 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argyris C, & Schon, D.A. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. New York: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Barth, R.S. (1988). Improving schools from within: Teachers, parents and principals can make the difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Barth, R.S. (1990). A personal vision of A good school. Phi Delta Kappan, March, 512–516.Google Scholar
  4. Barth, R.S. (2001). Learning by heart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, L.G., & Murphy, J. (1993). Understanding the principalship: Metaphorical themes 1920s–1990s. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, N. (1993). Knowledge bases for learning to teach. In N. Bennett & C. Carre (Eds.), Learning to teach (pp. 23–36). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Blackmore, J. (1989). Educational leadership: A feminist critique and reconstruction. In J. Smyth (Ed.), Critical perspectives on educational leadership (pp. 37–43). London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  8. Blase, J., & Anderson, G.L. (1995). The micropolitics of educational leadership: From control to empowerment. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  9. Britzman, D.P. (1991). Practice makes practice: A critical study of learning to Teach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brookfield, S. (1987), Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  11. Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  12. Caldwell, B.J., & Spinks, J.M. (1992). Leading the self-managing school. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  13. Carr W, & Kemmis S. (1986). Becoming critical: Knowing through action research. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  14. Clandinin, D.J., & Connelly, F.M. (1995). Teachers’ professional knowledge landscapes. New York: Teachers College PressGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark, CM., & Yinger, R.J. (1977). Research on teacher thinking. Curriculum Inquiry, 7(4), 279–305.Google Scholar
  16. Cole, A.L. (1997). Impediments to reflective practice: Teachers and teaching. Theory and Practice, 3(1), 7–27.Google Scholar
  17. Connelly, F.M., & Clandinin, D.J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14.Google Scholar
  18. Creemers, B. (1992). The effective classroom. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  19. Day, C. (1993). The importance of learning biography in supporting teacher development: An empirical study, In C. Day, J. Calderhead, & P. Denicolo (Eds.), Research on teacher thinking: Understanding professional development (pp. 221–232). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  20. Day, C. (1997). In-service teacher education in Europe: Conditions and themes for development in the 21st century. Journal of In-Service Education, 23(1), 39–54.Google Scholar
  21. Day, C. (1999). Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  22. Day, C. (2000). Effective leadership and reflective practice. International Journal of Reflective Practice, 1(1), 113–127.Google Scholar
  23. Day, C, & Bakioglu, A. (1996). Development and disenchantment in the professional lives of headteachers. In I.F. Goodson & A. Hargreaves (Eds.), Teachers professional lives (pp. 205–227). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  24. Day, C., Harris, A., & Hadfield, M. (2000a). Grounding knowledge of schools in stakeholder realities: A multi-perspective study of effective school leaders. School Leadership and Management, 21(1), 19–42.Google Scholar
  25. Day, C, Harris, A., Hadfield, M, Tolley, H., & Beresford, J. (2000b). Leading schools in times of change. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: Heath & Co.Google Scholar
  27. Duignan, P.A., & Macpherson, R.J.S. (1992). Educative leadership: A practical theory for new administrators and managers. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ebbutt, D. (1985). Educational action reserch: Some general concerns and specific quibbles. In R.G. Burgess (Ed.), Issues in educational research (pp. 154–166). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  29. Elliott, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Eraut, M.E. (1994). Developing professional knowledge and competence. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  31. Eraut, M. (1995). Developing professional knowledge and competence. In T. Guskey, & M. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices (pp. 227–252). Columbia University: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, L.(1998). Teacher motivation. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  33. Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  34. Fullan, M. (1992a). What’s worth fighting for in headship? Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Fullan, M. (1992b). Successful school improvement. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fullan, M. (1995). The Limits and potential of professional development. In T. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices (pp. 253–268). Columbia University: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  37. Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Gabarro, J. (1987). The dynamics of taking charge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  40. Glickman, C.D. (1993). Renewing America’s schools: A guide for school-based action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  42. Goodson, I. (2000). Professional knowledge and the teacher’s life and work. In C. Day, A. Fernandez, T. Hauge, & J. Moller (Eds.), The life and work of teachers: International perspectives in changing times (pp. 13–26). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  43. Grimmett, P., MacKinnon, A., Erickson, G., & Riecken, T. (1990). Reflective practice in teacher education. In R.T. Clift, W.R. Houston, & M. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice: An analysis of issues and programmes (pp. 20–38). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gronn, P. (1993). Psychobiography on the couch: Character, biography and the comparative study of leaders. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 29(3), 7–17.Google Scholar
  45. Gronn, P. (1999). The making of educational leaders. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  46. Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed properties: A new architechure for leadership. Educational Management and Administration, 28(3), 317–338.Google Scholar
  47. Guskey, T.R., & Huberman, M. (Eds.) (1995). Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices. Columbia University: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  48. Handal, G., & Lauvas, P. (1987). Promoting reflective teaching: Supervision in action. Milton Keynes, UK: The Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hargreaves A., & Goodson, I.F. (1996). Teachers’ professional lives: Aspirations and actualities. In I.F. Goodson & A. Hargreaves (Eds.), Teachers’ professional lives (pp. 1–27). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  51. Harris, A. (1998). Improving ineffective departments in secondary schools: Strategies for change and development. Educational Management and Administration, 26(3), 269–278.Google Scholar
  52. Harris, A. (2001). Department improvement and school improvement: A missing link? British Educational Research Journal, 27(4), 477–487.Google Scholar
  53. Harris, A., Jamieson, I.M., & Russ, J. (1996). What makes an effective department? Management in Education, 10, 7–9.Google Scholar
  54. Harris, A., Day, C, & Hadfield, M. (2001). Headteachers’ views of effective school leadership. International Studies in Educational Administration, 29(1), 29–39.Google Scholar
  55. Hart, A.W (1993). Principal succession: Establishing leadership in schools. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Facilitating reflection: Issues and research. Forum of Education, 50(1), 49–65.Google Scholar
  57. Hodgkinson, C. (1991). Educational leadership: The moral art. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hopkins, D., Ainscow, M., & West, M. (1994). School improvement in an era of change. London, New York: Cassell.Google Scholar
  59. Hopkins, D., Harris, A., & Jackson, D. (1997). Understanding the school’s capacity for development: Growth states and strategies. School Leadership and Management, 17(3), 401–411.Google Scholar
  60. Huberman, M. (1995). Professional careers and professional development and some intersections. In T. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.) (1995). Professional development in education: New perspectives and practices (pp. 193–224). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  61. Jackson, P.W (1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  62. Kelchtermans, G. (1993). Teachers and their career story: A biographical perspective on professional development. In C. Day, J. Calderhead & P. Denicolo (Eds.), Research on teacher thinking: Understanding professional development (pp. 198–220). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  63. Johnston, R., & Bradley, G. (1996). The competent reflective practitioner. Innovation and Learning in Education, 2, 4–10.Google Scholar
  64. Korthagen, F.A.J., & Wubbels, T. (1995). Characteristics of reflective practitioners: Towards an operationalisation of the concept. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1(1), 51–72.Google Scholar
  65. Lambert, L. (1998). Building leadership capacity in schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  66. Leithwood, K. (1992). The move towards transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 45(5), 8–12.Google Scholar
  67. Leithwood, K., Begley, P., & Cousins, B. (1992). Developing expert leadership for future schools. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  68. Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1990). Transformational leadership: How principals can help reform cultures. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 1(4), 249–280.Google Scholar
  69. Leithwood, K., & Montgomery, D. (1984). Obstacles preventing principals from becoming more effective. Education and Urban Society, 17(1), 73–88.Google Scholar
  70. Leithwood, K, Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Leithwood, K., Tomlinson, D., & Genge, M. (1996). Transformational school leadership. In K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, & A. Hart (Eds.), International handbook of educational leadership and administration (pp. 785–840). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lieberman, A. (1996). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. In M.W. McLaughlin & I. Oberman (Eds.), Teacher learning: New Policies, New Practices (pp. 185–201). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  73. Little, J.W (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 325–340.Google Scholar
  74. Little, J.W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers’ College Record, 91, 509–556.Google Scholar
  75. Loughran, J.J. (1996 Developing reflective practice: Learning about teaching and learning through modelling. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  76. Loughran, J.J. (Ed.) (1999). Researching teaching: Methodologies and practices for understanding pedagogy. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  77. Louis, K.S., Marks, H., & Kruse, S. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(4), 757–798.Google Scholar
  78. MacBeath, J. (Ed.) (1998). Effective school leadership: Responding to change. London: Paul Chapman.Google Scholar
  79. McLaughlin, M. W. (1993). What matters most in teachers’ workplace context? In J.W Little & M.W McLaughlin (Eds.), Teachers’ work: Individuals, colleagues and contexts (pp. 95–112). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  80. McLaughlin, M.W, & Oberman, I (Eds.) (1996). Teacher learning: New policies, new practices. Columbia University: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  81. Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  82. Mitchell, C, & Sackney, L. (2000). Profound improvement: Building capacity for a learning community. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  83. Mortimore, P. (2000). The road to school improvement. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  84. Ozga, J. (1995). Deskilling a profession: Professionalism, deprofessionalisation and the new managerialism. In H. Busher & R. Saran (Eds.), Managing teachers as professionals in schools (pp. 21–37). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  85. Pedretti, E. (1996). Facilitating action research in science, technology, and society (STS) education: An experience in reflective practice. Education Action Research, 4(3), 307–328.Google Scholar
  86. Peters, J.L. (1985). Research in reflective teaching: A form of laboratory teaching experience. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 18(3), 55–62.Google Scholar
  87. Polanyi, M. (1967). The tacit dimension. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  88. Ribbins, P. (1998, June). On ladders and greasy poles: Developing school leaders’ careers. Paper presented at the third ESRC seminar, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  89. Rosener, J.B. (1990). Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review, November/December, 76–83.Google Scholar
  90. Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teachers’ workplace: The social organisation of schools. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  91. Sackney, L., Walker, K., & Hajal, V. (1998). Principal and teacher perspectives on school improvement. Journal of Educational Management, 1(1), 45–63.Google Scholar
  92. Sammons, P. (2000). School effectiveness: Coming of age. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  93. Sammons, P., Hillman, J., & Mortimore, P. (1995). Key characteristics of effective schools: A review of school effectiveness research. London: Office for Standards in Education [OFSTED].Google Scholar
  94. Sammons, P., Thomas, S., & Mortimore, P. (1996). Promoting school and departmental effectiveness. Management in Education 10, 22–24.Google Scholar
  95. Scheerens, J. (1992). Effective schooling: Research, theory and practice. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  96. Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  97. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  98. Sergiovanni, T.J. (1990). Value-added leadership: How to get extraordinary performance in schools. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  99. Sergiovanni, T.J. (1995). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  100. Sergiovanni, T.J. (1998). Leadership as pedagogy, capital development and school effectiveness. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1(1), 37–47.Google Scholar
  101. Sergiovanni, T. (2000). The lifeworld of leadership. London: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  102. Sergiovanni, T. (2001). Leadership: What’s in it for schools? London: Routledge FalmerGoogle Scholar
  103. Shakeshaft, C. (1996). Women in educational administration. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  104. Silins, H., & Mulford, B. (in press). Leadership and school results. Second International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration.Google Scholar
  105. Stoll, L. (1996). Asking the right questions. Managing Schools Today, 5(6), 13–17Google Scholar
  106. Southworth, G. (1990). Leadership, headship and effective primary schools. School Organisation, 10(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  107. Tampoe, M. (1998). Liberating leadership. London: The Industrial Society.Google Scholar
  108. Teddlie, C, & Reynolds, D. (2000). The international handbook of school effectiveness research. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  109. Van Manen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing to ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6(3), 205–228.Google Scholar
  110. Van Manen, M. (1995). On the epistemology of reflective practice, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1(1), 33–50.Google Scholar
  111. Weindling, D. (1999). Stages of headship. In T. Bush, L. Bell, R. Bolam, R. Glatter, & R. Ribbins (Eds.), Educational management: Redefining theory, policy and practice (pp. 90–101). London: Paul Chapman.Google Scholar
  112. Weindling, D., & Earley, P. (1987). Secondary headship: The first years. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.Google Scholar
  113. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Wellington, B., & Austin, P. (1996). Orientations to reflective practice. Educational Research, 38(3), 307–315.Google Scholar
  115. West, M., Jackson, D., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2000). Leadership for school improvement. In K. Riley & K.S. Louis (Eds.), Leadership for change (pp. 32–43). London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  116. Wohlstetter, P., Smyer, R., & Mohrman, S.A. (1994). New boundaries for school-based management: The high involvement model. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16, 268–286.Google Scholar
  117. Zeichner, K.M. (1993). Action research: Personal renewal and social reconstruction. Educational Action Research, 1(2), 199–220.Google Scholar
  118. Zeichner K.M., & Liston D.P. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Day
    • 1
  • Alma Harris
    • 2
  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of NottinghamEngland
  2. 2.Institute of EducationUniversity of WarwickEngland

Personalised recommendations