Advertisement

Morphological Evaluation of Embryos in Domestic Species

  • Sybrand Merton

Abstract

The need to judge the quality of domestic animal embryos with regard to the establishment of pregnancies following embryo transfer (ET) is obvious. The use of embryo production techniques in a commercial set-up for e.g. bovine reproduction can only be successful with acceptable pregnancy rates. Therefore, the selection of ‘good’ embryos has since long been of great interest.

Keywords

Pregnancy Rate Inner Cell Mass Embryo Quality Bovine Embryo Post Fertilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brison DR, Leese HJ. 1994. The role of exogenous energy substrates in blastocoel fluid accumulation in the rat. Zygote 2:69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Callesen H, Lovendahl P, Bak A, Greve T. 1995. Factors affecting the developmental stage of embryos recovered on day 7 from superovulated dairy cattle. J Anim Sci 73:1539–1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Checiu I, Checiu M. 1996. There are no in vivo pulsations of mouse blastocysts. Rom J Morphol Embryol 42:147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chupin D, Florin B, Procureur R. 1984. Comparison of two methods for one-step in-straw thawing and direct transfer of cattle blastocysts. Theriogenology 21:455–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Du F, Looney CR, Yang X. 1996. Evaluation of bovine embryos produced in vitro vs. in vivo by differential staining of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells. Theriogenology 45:211 abstr.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farin PW, Britt JH, Shaw DW, Slenning BD. 1995. Agreement among evaluators of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro. Theriogenology 44:339–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farin PW, Farin CE. 1995. Transfer of bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro: survival and fetal development. Biol Reprod 52:676–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farin PW, Crosier AE, Farin CE. 1999. Estimates of pregnancy outcomes based on selection of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro. Theriogenology 52:659–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Galli C, Lazzari G. 1996. Practical aspects of IVM/IVF in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 42:371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardiner CS, Menino AR Jr. 1991. Development of Na/K ATPase activity and blastocoel formation. Proceedings of the symposium on Preimplantation Embryo Development 1991:200–211.Google Scholar
  11. Gonzales DS, Bavister BD. 1995. Zona pellucida escape by hamster blastocysts in vitro is delayed and morphologically different compared with zona escape in vivo. Biol Reprod 52:470–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hasler JF, Henderson WN, Hurtgen PJ, Jin ZQ, Mc.Cauley AD, Mower SA, Neely B, Shuey LS, Stokes JE, Trimmer SA. 1995. Production, freezing and transfer of bovine IVF-embryo’s and subsequent calving results. Theriogenology 43:141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hasler JF. 1998. The current status of oocyte recovery, in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in domestic animals with emphasis on the bovine. J Anim Sci 76(suppl. 3):52–74.Google Scholar
  14. Hazeleger W, Kemp B. 1999. State of the art in pig embryo transfer. Theriogenology 51:81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hill BR, Kuehner LF. 1998. Bovine donor blood cholesterol, embryo colour and embryo freezability. Theriogenology 49:168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holm P, Callesen H. 1998. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application. 14th reunion A.E.T.E. Venice, 11–12 September 1998.Google Scholar
  17. Iwasaki S, Yoshiba N, Ushijima H, Watanabe S, Nakahara TJ. 1990. Morphology and proportion of inner cell mass of bovine blastocysts fertilized in vivo and in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 90:279–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang HS, Wang WL, Lu KH, Gordon I, Polge C. 1992. Examination of cell numbers of blastocysts derived from IVM, IVF and IVC of bovine follicular oocytes. Theriogenology 37:229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindner GM, Wright RW. 1983. Bovine embryo morphology and evaluation. Theriogenology 20:407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Manual of the International Embryo Transfer Society, 3rd edition, 1998.Google Scholar
  21. Massip A, Mulnard J. 1980. Time-lapse cinematographic analysis of hatching of normal and frozen-thawed cow blastocysts. J Reprod Fertil 58:475–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Massip A, Mulnard J, Vanderzwalmen P, Hanzen C, Ectors F. 1982. The behaviour of cow blastocyst in vitro: cinematographic and morphometric analysis. J Anat 134:399–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. McMillan WH. 1998. Statistical models predicting survival to term in cattle after embryo transfer. Theriogenology 50:1053–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Merton JS, van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw AM, den Daas JHG. 1998. Factors affecting birth weigth of IVP calves. Theriogenology 49:293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Merton JS, Mullaart E. 1999. Comparison of the effect of two bovine in vitro culture systems, TCM199/FCS/BRL-co-culture and SOFaaBSA, on embryo production and pregnancy rate. Theriogenology 51:248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rexroad CE, Powell AM. 1999. The ovine uterus as a host for in vitro produced bovine embryos. Theriogenology 52:351–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shea BF. 1981. Evaluating the bovine embryo. Theriogenology 15:31–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Squires EL, McCue PM, Vanderwall D. 1999. The current status of equine embryo transfer. Theriogenology 51:91–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Talbot NC, Powell A, Garrett E, Edwards JL, Rexroad C. 2000. Ultrastructural and karyotypic examination of in vitro produced bovine embryos developed in the sheep uterus. Tissue Cell 32:9–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thompson JG. 1997. Comparison between in vivo derived and in vitro produced pre-elongation embryos from domestic ruminants. Reprod Fertil Dev 9:341–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Soom A, de Kruif A. 1992. A comparison between in vivo and in vitro produced bovine embryos: Scientific and practical implications. Proc 12th Int Con Anim Reprod AI 3:1365–1367.Google Scholar
  32. Van Soom A. 1996. Bovine embryo quality: timing of development, morphological differentiation and cell allocation. PhD thesis, Ghent University.Google Scholar
  33. Van Soom A, Boerjan M, Ysebaert M-T, de Kruif A. 1996a. Cell allocation to the iner cell mass and the trophectoderm in bovine embryos cultured in two different media. Mol Reprod Dev 45:171–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Soom A, Ysebaert M-T, Vanhoucke-Demedts A., Van De Velde A, Merton S, Delval A, Van Langendonckt A, Donnay I, Vanroose G, Bols PEJ, De Kruif A. 1996b. Sucrose induced shrinkage of in vitro produced bovine morulae: effect on viability, morphology and ease of evaluation. Theriogenology 46:1131–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van Soom A, Boerjan ML, Bols PEJ, Vanroose G, Lein A, Coryn M, de Kruif A. 1997. Timing of compaction and inner cell allocation in bovine embryos produced in vivo after superovulation. Biol Reprod 57:1041–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Soom A, Mahmoudzadeh AR, Christophe A, Ysebaert MT, de Kruif A. 2001. Silicone oil used in microdrop culture can affect bovine embryonic development and freezability. Reprod Dom Anim 36:169–176.Google Scholar
  37. Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw AM. 1996. Evaluation of uniformity among persons in embryo grading from video recordings. Theriogenology 45:230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Watson AJ. 1991. Activation of the embryonic genome: comparison between mouse and bovine development. Proceedings of the symposium on Preimplantation Embryo Development 1991:115–130.Google Scholar
  39. Watson AJ. 1992. The cell biology of blastocyst development. Mol Reprod Dev 33:492–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wurth YA, Reinders JMC, Rall WF, Kruip TAM. 1994. Developmental potential of in vitro produced bovine embryos following cryopreservation and single embryo transfer. Theriogenology 42:1275–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sybrand Merton
    • 1
  1. 1.Holland Genetics ET-IVP LaboratoryHarfsenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations