Planetary and lunar magnetism

  • Norman F. Ness


In situ studies by spacecraft of the magnetic fields of Earth and all the planets except for Pluto began with the USSR’s launch of Sputnik 3 in 1958. The study of the geomagnetic field by the USA followed with Vanguard 3 in 1959. Since then the US Explorer, Mariner, Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, and Galileo missions have surveyed all the planets from Mercury to Neptune as well as the Earth’s Moon, the Galilean moons of Jupiter, and Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. The USSR repeatedly studied Earth’s Moon, Venus, and Mars with their Luna, Venera, Mars, and Phobos missions.


Solar Wind Geophysics Research Plasma Sheet Geophysics Research Letter Internal Magnetic Field 
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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman F. Ness
    • 1
  1. 1.Bartol Research InstituteNewarkUSA

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