# Causality as a Casualty of Pregeometry

## Abstract

In Wheeler’s pregeometry, one attempts to derive properties of the spacetime manifold, such as metric, continuity, dimensionality, topology, locality, symmetry, and causality from an otherwise structureless set [1]. Requardt & Roy refer to this methodologically reductionist attempt to model the properties of spacetime as “bottom up pregeometry” [2]. In an early attempt to derive spacetime dimensionality, Wheeler assigned probability amplitudes to the members of a Borel (structureless) set to stochastically establish spacetime adjacency [3]. Wheeler abandoned this idea, in part, because “too much geometric structure is presupposed to lead to a believable theory of geometric structure” [4]. In particular, he considered the manner in which probability amplitudes were assigned, and a metric introduced, to be *ad hoc*. However, recent models by Nagels [5], Antonsen [6], and Nowotny & Requardt [7] employing graph theory have, arguably, surmounted these objections.

## Keywords

Uniform Space Spacetime Structure Spacetime Region Fundamental Constituent Block Universe## Preview

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