Advertisement

Life Cycle Assessment

  • Roberto Dones
  • Xin Zhou
  • Chunxiu Tian
Chapter
  • 254 Downloads
Part of the Alliance for Global Sustainability Bookseries book series (AGSB, volume 4)

Abstract

Energy systems analysts will underestimate the environmental burden of each unit of electricity if they only consider the effects of the power plant that produces it. They must take into consideration the impacts of all the industrial activities required to produce energy, from mining of the ore to conversion to electricity. The assessment of an entire technology system should include the management of waste streams as well as the energy and materials invested. For renewables, the burdens from manufacturing of all components of the power units should be compared to the burdens from the process chains for fossil and nuclear energy carriers.

Keywords

Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Assessment Study Life Cycle Analysis Integrate Gasification Combine Cycle Coal Power Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AGOC (2000). China sees natural gas as a supplement to the national energy supply. Alexander’s Gas and Oil Connections, 5, 2 (7 February 2000). Retrieved from: http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/nts00621.htmGoogle Scholar
  2. Bökemeier, R., and Elleringmann, S. (2002). Höllenfahrt durch China. GEO Magazin, 9 (100-124).Google Scholar
  3. BP (2001). Statistical review of world energy. London: British Petroleum.Google Scholar
  4. CACETC 2000: China wind power - Study Report. Wind Power Expert Team, 28 February 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.climatetech.net/pdf/china_wind.pdfGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameco (2002). Enrichment Backgrounder. Cameco news, Updates 2002. Retrieved from:http://www.cameco.com/media_gateway/news_releases/2002/2002-july-22backgrounder.phpGoogle Scholar
  6. CCIY (1999). China Coal Industry Yearbook. Beijing: China Coal Industry Publishing House.Google Scholar
  7. CCIY (1998). China Coal Industry Yearbook. Beijing: China Coal Industry Publishing House.Google Scholar
  8. Cedigaz (1996). Natural Gas in the World: 1996 Survey. Paris: Cedigaz.Google Scholar
  9. CEIP (1998). China: Nuclear weapons systems. In: W.J. Rodney et al., Tracking Nuclear Proliferation 1998. China Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from: http://www.ceip.org/programs/npp/nppchnct.htmGoogle Scholar
  10. CEOCI (2000). Status of State-owned Major Coal Mines and Coal Dressing Plants 1999. Beijing: Center for Economic Operation of Coal Industries.Google Scholar
  11. CESY (1999). China Energy Statistical Yearbook. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  12. CESY (1998). China Energy Statistical Yearbook. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  13. China Daily 12/6/2000. Power generation progresses steadily. Beijing.Google Scholar
  14. CMS (2001). CMS Energy - Trunkline LNG. Retrieved from:http://www.cmspanhandlecompanies.com/documents/ CMS_Brochure_030102.pdfGoogle Scholar
  15. CORINAIR (1996). Joint EMEP/CORINAIR atmospheric emission inventory guidebook. Mclnnes G. (Ed.), Vol.1 and II. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.Google Scholar
  16. Dedikov, J.V., Akopova, G., Gladkaja, N., Piotrovskij, A., Markellov, V., Kaesler, H., Ramm, A.,Google Scholar
  17. Müller von Blumencron, A., and Lelieveld, J. (1999). Estimating methane releases from natural gas production and transmission in Russia. In: Atmospheric Environment, 33, 3291-3299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DOE/EIA (2001a). International Energy Outlook 2001. US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, DOE/EIA-0484(2001). Washington DC. Retrieved from: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
  19. DOE/EIA (2001b). Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000. US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-E-0110(00). Washington DC. Retrieved from:http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publication/historical_natural_gas_annual/current/pdf/table_05.pdfGoogle Scholar
  20. DOE/EIA (2000). Uranium Industry Annual 1999. US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, DOE/EIA-0478(99). Washington DC.Google Scholar
  21. Dones, R, Gantner, U., Hirschberg, S., Doka, G., and Knoepfel, I. (1996). Environmental Inventories for Future Electricity Supply Systems for Switzerland. PSI Report No.96-07. Villigen, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  22. Dones, R., Zhou, X., and Tian, C. (2003). Environmental inventories for current and future energy chains associated with electricity supply in Shandong Province, China - Technical report of the LCA Task for the CETP Project. Villigen, Switzerland: PSI.Google Scholar
  23. EIA (1997). Worldwide Natural Gas Supply and Demand and the Outlook for Global LNG Trade. In: Natural Gas Monthly, August 1997, US Energy Information Administration. Retrieved from: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/features/world_ng.pdfGoogle Scholar
  24. EPA (1998). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1996. Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, EPA 236-R-98-006. Washington DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. [Quoted in (Popov, 2001)]Google Scholar
  25. ExternE (1999). ExterneE - Externalities of Energy - Vol. 10: National Implementation. European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science Research and Development (EUR 18528). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Available at: http://ExternE.jrc.es/publica.html.Google Scholar
  26. FAS (2000). Washington DC: Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/uranium-mines.htmGoogle Scholar
  27. FAS (1997). Washington DC: Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/china/facility/chengdu.htmGoogle Scholar
  28. Finn, A.J., Johnson, G.L., and Tomlison, T.R. (1999). Developments in natural gas liquefaction. In: Hydrocarbon Processing, Gulf Publishing Company, 78, 4. Retrieved from: http://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/Google Scholar
  29. Frischknecht, R. (Ed.), Bollens, U., Bosshart, S., Ciot, M., Ciseri, L., Doka, G., Dones, R., Gantner, U., Hischier. R., and Martin, A. (1996). —koinventare von Energiesystemen-Grundlagen für den ökologischen Vergleich von Energiesystemen und den Einbezug von Energiesystemen in —kobilanzen für die Schweiz - 3rd Ed. Zurich: ETHZ/PSI.Google Scholar
  30. Fukusawa, K. (1997). Low cost, retrofit FGD systems. IEA Coal Research, IEAPER/34. London.Google Scholar
  31. Gazprom/EPA (1996). Methane Leak Measurements at Selected Natural Gas Pipelines Compressor Stations in Russia (Draft). Moscow. [Quoted in (Popov, 2001).]Google Scholar
  32. Girdis, D., Tavoulareas, S., and Tomkins, R. (2000). Liquefied Natural Gas in China. World Bank Discussion Paper No.414. Washington DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grizenko, A.N., Akopova, G., and Gladkaja N. (1997). Russian gas industry and the problem of greenhouse gas emissions. Presented in Aberdeen, available from Gazprom (April 1997). [Quoted in (Dedikov et al., 1999).]Google Scholar
  34. Guo, Y., Wu, J., Gou, Q., Shu, X., and Xiue, Y. (1996). Radioactive gas measurement in underground coal mines. In Y. Guo and T.S. Golosinski (Eds.), Mining science and Technology, Proceedings of the ’96 International Symposium on Mining Science and technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China, 16-18 October 1996 (503-506). Rotterdam/Brookfield: Balkema.Google Scholar
  35. Hinrichs, W., Atmaca, T., Neumann, W., and Thormann, A. (1999). Stoffmengenflüsse und Energiebedarf bei der Gewinnung ausgewählter mineralischer Rohstoffe - Teilstudie Steinkohle. Geologisches Jahrbuch - Sonderheft, Bundesamt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Staatlichen Geologischen Diensten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Hannover.Google Scholar
  36. Hirschberg, S., Dones, R., and Gantner, U. (2000). Use of External Cost Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Comparative Evaluation of Options for Electricity Supply. In: S. Kondo and K. Furuta (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management PSAM-5, Osaka, 27 November-1 December (pp. 289-296). Tokyo: Universal Academy Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  37. Hirschberg, S., Heck, T., Gantner, U., Lu, Y. Spadaro, J. V., Krewitt, W., Trukenmüller, A. and Zhao, Y. (2003). Environmental impact and external cost assessment in the China Energy Technology Program. Villigen, Switzerland: PSI.Google Scholar
  38. Horii, N. (2001). Coal Industry: Development of small coal mines in market transition and its externality. In: N. Horii and S. Gu (Eds.), Transformation of China’s energy industries in market transition and its prospects (pp. 23-62). Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization.Google Scholar
  39. ICRFCC (1998). Second National Communication of the Russian Federation Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Interagency Commission of the Russian Federation on Climate Change. Moscow (in Russian). [Quoted in (Popov, 2001).]Google Scholar
  40. IEA (2000). China’s Worldwide Quest for Energy Security. Paris: OECD/IEA. Available at: http://cdnet.stic.gov.tw/ebooks/OECD/54.pdfGoogle Scholar
  41. IGU (1997). Task force gas, the environment: report on environmental care in the gas business. In: Proceedings of the 20th World Gas Conference, Copenhagen, 10-13 June 1997 (pp. 63-66). International Gas Union. [Quoted in (Dedikov et al., 1999).]Google Scholar
  42. IPCC (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. IPCC (1995). IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 3. Greenhouse gas inventory reference manual. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar
  44. ISO (2000). Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Life cycle impact assessment. International Standard, ISO 14042:2000(E).Google Scholar
  45. ISO (1998). Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis. International Standard, ISO 14041:1998(E).Google Scholar
  46. ITC (2001). International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, update March 2001. Enschede, the Netherlands. Retrieved from: ht1p://www.itc.ny~prakash/coalfire/distribution_china.htmlGoogle Scholar
  47. Ivanov, V. (1999). Energy Mega-Projects Will Change Northeast Asia. First draft presented at the Conference on Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 9 June 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.tradp.org/textonly/ivanov.htmGoogle Scholar
  48. Kidd, S. (1999). Forecasters probing: How will China fuel its growing nuclear power program? Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 11-12/1999.Google Scholar
  49. Lenders, M. (2001). Uranium enrichment by gaseous centrifuge. Deutsches Atomforum Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology, Dresden, 16 May 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.urenco.com/pdf/atomforum_May_2001 .pdfGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu, C, Li, S., Qiao, Q., Wang, J., and Pan, Z. (1998). Management of spontaneous combustion in coal mine waste tips of China. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 103 (441-444). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher.Google Scholar
  51. Logan, J., and Luo, D. (1999). Natural Gas and China’s Environment, IEA-China Natural Gas Industry Conference, Beijing, 9-10 November 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.pnl.gov/china/pubs.htmGoogle Scholar
  52. Logan, J., and Zhang, J. (1998). Powering non-nuclear growth in China with natural gas and renewable energy technologies. China Environment Series 2, Summer 1998. Retrieved from: http://ecsp.si.edu/ecsplib.nsf/6b5e482eec6e8a27852565dl000ela4c/54b8301f5e346cf08525664b007 16a08?OpenDocumentGoogle Scholar
  53. Lu, Y. (1999). China’s uranium mining, Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 11-12/1999.Google Scholar
  54. Marland, G., Boden, T., and Andres, R.J. (1995). Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning: emission coefficients and the global contribution of Eastern European countries. Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, 99, 3-4 (157-170). [Quoted in (IEA, 1997).]Google Scholar
  55. MN (2001). China to Fill Oil Gap With Natural Gas. Muzi News (6 February 2001). Beijing. Retrieved from: http://news.muzi.com/ll/english/l044829.shtmlGoogle Scholar
  56. Mohrhauer, H. (1995). Entwicklung bei der Uran-Anreicherung. atw, 40(8/9).Google Scholar
  57. Mudd, G.M. (2001a). Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 1. USA and Australia. Environmental Geology, 41 (390-403).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mudd G.M. (2001b). Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 2. Soviet Block and Asia. Environmental Geology, 41 (404-416).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nagra (1985). Radioaktive Abfälle: Eigenschaften und Zuteilung auf die Endlager-Typen. NGB 85-02. Baden, Switzerland: Nagra.Google Scholar
  60. NCIA (1999). Statistical Annual Report of Coal Industry 1998 (Aug. 1999). Beijing: National Coal Industry Agency.Google Scholar
  61. NEA/IAEA (2002). Uranium 2001: Resources, Production and Demand. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  62. NEW 7-8/2000. Nuclear Europe Worldscan 7-8/2000.Google Scholar
  63. NEW 3-4/2000. Nuclear Europe Worldscan 3-4/2000.Google Scholar
  64. NIR (2000). The virtual Repository - China. (January 2000). Nuclear Inforing. Retrieved from: http://cobweb.quantisci.co.uk/VRepository/chin.htmGoogle Scholar
  65. NucNet (2002). NucNetNews, 140/02. Retrieved from http://www.world-nuclear.orgGoogle Scholar
  66. Oskarsson, K., Berglund, A., Deling, R., Snellman, U., Stenbäck, O., and Fritz, J.J. (1997). A Planner’s Guide for Selecting Clean-Coal Technologies for Power Plants. World Bank Technical Paper No.387. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  67. Pan, Z. and Qu, Z. (1999). Radioactive waste management in China. Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 11-12/1999.Google Scholar
  68. PD (2000). Rich Natural Gas Reserves Found in North China. People’s Daily (2 December 2000). Retrieved from: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200012/02/eng20001202_56746.htmlGoogle Scholar
  69. Popov, I. (2001). Estimating Methane Emissions From the Russian Natural Gas Sector. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Advanced International Studies Unit, PNNL-13462. Washington DC. Retrieved from: http://www.pnl.gov/aisu/pubs/Gazprom.PDFGoogle Scholar
  70. Qian, F. (1999). Introduction to China’s strategy on nuclear fuel development and cycle, Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 11-12/1999.Google Scholar
  71. Rabchuk, V.I., Ilkevich, N.I., and Kononov, Y.D. (1991). A study of methane leakage in the Soviet natural gas supply system, Report to Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Irkutsk, USSR: Siberian Energy Institute. [Quoted in (Dedikov et al., 1999).]Google Scholar
  72. Rabl, A., and Spadaro, J. (2002). The ExternE Project: Methodology, Objectives, and Limitations. In: Externalities and Energy Policy: The Life Cycle Analysis Approach, Workshop Proceedings, Paris 15 16 November 2001 (47-61). Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.nea.fr/html/ndd/reports/nea3676-externalities.pdfGoogle Scholar
  73. RFSHEM (1997). Russian Federation Climate Change Country Study. Volume 1. Inventory of Technogenic GHG Emissions. Final report, Moscow: Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. [Quoted in (Popov, 2001).]Google Scholar
  74. Rui S. et al. (1994). Coal Industry: Sustainable Development and the Environment. Beijing: Coal Industry Publishing House.Google Scholar
  75. Sauer, H. D. (2002). Verbrennung am falschen Ort. Neue Zürcher Zeitung 15/5/2002, Zurich.Google Scholar
  76. Shi, W. (2000). Personal communication. Beijing.Google Scholar
  77. Sinton, J.E., and Fridley, D.G. (2000). What goes up: recent trends in China’s energy consumption. Energy Policy 28, 671-687.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, I.M. (1997). GHG emission factors for coal - the complete fuel cycle. IEACR/98. London: IEA Coal Research.Google Scholar
  79. Su, S., et al. (1999). Environmental Protection of Shanxi Coal Industry, China Environmental Science Press, (1999).Google Scholar
  80. UNSCEAR (1993). 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations sales publication E.94.IX.2. New York.Google Scholar
  81. Urenco (1995). The Uranium Enrichment Plant Almelo, Information booklet. Almelo, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  82. Vekerdy, Z., Wang, F., Zhang, J.M., and Prakash, A. (1999). Requirements for the integration of remote sensing and field data in a GIS for the management of fire fighting in coalfields. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Operationalization of Remote Sensing, Enschede, The Netherlands, 16-20 August 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.itc.nl/personal/vekerdy/pdf/ORS_99_Vekerdy.pdfGoogle Scholar
  83. Walker, S. (1999). Uncontrolled fires in coal and coal wastes. London: IEA Coal Research.Google Scholar
  84. Wang, H.H. (1999). China’s Oil Industry and Market. The Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  85. Wang, J., and Dai, Y.N. (1993). In-situ leaching of uranium in China. In: Uranium in situ leaching, IAEA TECDOC-720 (pp. 129-132). Vienna: IAEA.Google Scholar
  86. Watteau, M., Chen, B., and Zhang, S. (2000), Fuel technology transfer to China: ten years and still growing. Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 1-2/2000.Google Scholar
  87. Wise (2002). World Nuclear Fuel Facilities. Update 18 November 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.antenna.n1/wise/uranium/efac.html#ENRGGoogle Scholar
  88. WNA (2002). World Uranium Mining - July 2002. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved from: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf23.htmGoogle Scholar
  89. Yang, Q. (1999). The next-generation reactor AC600/1000. Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 11-12/1999.Google Scholar
  90. Zhang, X. (1998). Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring and prediction using remote sensing data. PhD Thesis, ITC publication No.58, International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences. Enschede, the Netherlands. [(Quoted in Walker 1999).]Google Scholar
  91. Zhang, Z.X., and Folmer, H. (1996). The Chinese Energy System: Implications for Future Carbon Dioxide Emissions in China. The Journal of Energy and Development, 21(1) 1-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zheng, Y. (1996). China’s Nuclear Arsenal. National University of Singapore. Retrieved from http://www.kimsoft.com/korea/ch-war.htmGoogle Scholar
  93. Zittel, W. (1997). Untersuchung zum Kenntnisstand über Methanemissionen beim Export von Erdgas aus Russland nach Deutschland. Ottobrunn, Germany: Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik Gm.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Dones
  • Xin Zhou
  • Chunxiu Tian

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations