Artificial Reef Methodology for Coastal Protection Using Submerged Structures: A Numerical Modeling Approach

  • B. Ontowirjo
  • H. D. Armono
Part of the Coastal Systems and Continental Margins book series (CSCM, volume 7)

Abstract

Waves induce flow around reef structures has been difficult to estimate, mainly due to complexity of porous structures and breaking waves conditions. An attempt has been made in this study to model the fluid domain and simplification of the existing structure barrier by a finite volume of fluid method for a three-dimensional Stokes model. The model is capable of simulating free-moving surface boundary conditions, the contribution of undertow, wave asymmetry and bottom boundary drift to sediment transport.

In addition to the present fluid model, a specially shaped submerged structure will be tested in order to observe its hydraulic capability to reduce the offshore waves energy as well as to provide a safe and productive environment for fish. It is expected that the flow created by the structure will be similar to flow around a natural reef so that the submerged structure when deployed may help to shelter marine creatures and accelerate reef reconstruction. The hydraulic parameters such as particle velocities, fluid flows, wave breaking and dissipation of wave energy in the vicinity of reefs are investigated. The results of a two-dimensional reef model using the finite volume method are presented and discussed. Comparison to laboratory measurement will also be discussed in this study.

Keywords

Biomass Vortex Beach Silt Compressibility 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambrose, R.F., Swarbrick, S.L.: ‘Comparison of Fish Assemblages on Artificial and Natural Reefs off The Coast of Southern California’, Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 44., No. 2, 1989, pp. 718–733.Google Scholar
  2. Aono, T., Cruz, E.C.: 'Fundamental Characteristics of Wave Transformation Around Artificial Reefs’, Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of Coastal Engineering, Chapter 178, 1996, pp. 298–2311..Google Scholar
  3. Baynes, T.W., Szmant, A.M.: ‘Effect of Current on the Sessile Benthic Community Structure of an Artificial Reefs’, Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 44., No. 2, 1989, pp. 545–566.Google Scholar
  4. Carter, R.W.G.: Coastal Environtment: an Introduction to the Physical, Ecological and Cultural Systems of Coastlines, Academic Press, London, ISBN 0-12-161855-2, 1988.Google Scholar
  5. Fitzhardinge, R.C., Bailey-Brock, J.H.: ‘Colonization of Artificial Reef Material by Coral and other Sessile Organisms’, Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 44, No. 2, 1989, pp. 567–579.Google Scholar
  6. Flow Science, Inc.: FLOW-3D Excellence in Flow Modelling Software version 7.1, Los Alamos, NM, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. Gross, M.G.: Oceanography: a View of the Earth, Prentice-Hall Inc., Engleword Cliffs, N.J., USA, ISBN 0-13-629692-0-01, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. Hayakawa, N. et al: ‘Numerical Simulation of Wave Fields around the Submerged Breakwater with SOLA-SURF Method’, Proceeding of the 26th International Conference of Coastal Engineering, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. 78, 1998, pp. 156–157.Google Scholar
  9. Hirt, C.W., Nichols, V.D., & Romero, N.C.: ‘SOLA: A Numerical Solution Algorithm for Transient Fluid Flows’, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, LA-5852, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hirt, C.W., Nichols,. V.D., & Hotchkiss, R.S.: ‘SOLA-VOF: A Solution Algorithm for Transient Fluid Flow with Multiple Free Boundaries’, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, LA-8355, 1981.Google Scholar
  11. Hirt., C.W., & Nichols,B.D.: ‘Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries’, Journal of Computational Physics 39, 1981, pp. 201–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kawasaki, K and Iwata, K: ‘Numerical Analysis of Wave Breaking Due to Submerged Breakwater in Three Dimensional Wave Field’, Proceeding of the 26th International Conference of Coastal Engineering, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. 79, 1998, pp. 158–159.Google Scholar
  13. Lindquist, D.G., Pietrafesa, L.J.: ‘Current Vortices and Fish Aggregations: the Current Field and Associated Fishes around a Tugboat Wreck in Onslow Bay, North Carolina’, Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 44., No. 2, 1989, pp. 533–544.Google Scholar
  14. Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D.: ‘Artificial Reefs and Fisheries Exploitation: a Review of the ‘Attraction versus Production’ Debate, the Influence of Design and its Significance for Policy’, Fisheries Research, Vol. 31, 1997, pp. 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Reef Ball Development Group, Ltd.: Internet Brochure., http://www.reefball.org.Google Scholar
  16. Richardson, J.E.: ‘Surf Similarity’, Flow Science Technical Note # 44, FSI-96-00-TN44, Los Alamos, NM., 1996, 8, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. White, A.T, et al: Artificial Reefs for Marine Habitat Enhancement in Southeast Asia, ICLARM Education Series 11, Philippines, ISBN 971-1022-83-4, 45, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Ontowirjo
    • 1
  • H. D. Armono
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Engineer Coastal Engineering Laboratory at the Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (LPTP-BPPT)JakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Graduate Student Faculty of Civil Engineering Queens UniversityCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of Ocean Technology Sepuluh November Institute of TechnologySurabayaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations