MICROPROPAGATION OF AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.)

  • A. Barceló-Muñoz
  • F. Pliego-Alfaro
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 75)

Abstract

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a tropical tree, of the Lauraceae family, genus Persea. On the basis of the morphology of reproductive structures, this genus was divided into two subgenera, Eriodaphne and Persea (Koop, 1966); the subgenus Eriodaphne includes many species with small fruits and of no commercial importance, whereas the subgenus Persea includes only a small number of species characterized by large fruits. The subgenus Persea includes the avocado, of which three horticultural races, named for their presumed region of origin, can be distinguished: Mexican, West Indian and Guatemalan. These races could have evolved under different climatic conditions with geographical barriers between them (Storey et al., 1986).

Keywords

Sucrose Starch Chlorophyll Glycine Photosynthesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References.

  1. Anónimo (1991) Common names for plant diseases. Plant Disease 3: 225–230Google Scholar
  2. Arrillaga l., Marzo ‘f., Segura J. (1991) Micropropagation of juvenile and adult Sorbus domestica L. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 27(3): 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azcón-Aguilar C.. Barceló-Muñoz A., Vidal M.T., de la Viña G. (1992) Further studies on the influence of mycorrhizae on growth and development of micropropagated avocado plants. Agronomie 12: 837–840.Google Scholar
  4. Barceló-Muñoz A. (1995) Micropropagación de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.). PhD Tesis. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad dc Málaga. España.Google Scholar
  5. Barceló-Muñoz A., Encina C.L., Simón-Pérez E., Pliego-Alfaro F. (1999) Micropropagation of adult avocado. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 58: 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barceló-Muñoz A., Pliego-Alfaro F. (1987) Multiplicación in vitro de tallos adultos de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.). Actas 11 Congreso Nacional S.E.C.H., 1986. Córdoba, España. Vol. II: 915–918.Google Scholar
  7. Barceló-Muñoz A.. Pliego-Alfaro F. (1997) Método para la micropropagación de aguacate (l’ersea americana M.) adulto. Patente n° P9700700/5. España.Google Scholar
  8. Barceló-Muñoz A., Pliego-Alfaro F., Barea J.M. (1990) Micropropagación de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) en fase juvenil. Actas de I lorticultura Vol.1: 503–506.Google Scholar
  9. Bergh B.O. (1969) Avocado (Persea americana Miller). In: Outlines of Perennial Crop Breeding in the Tropics. Ferwerda F.P., Wit F. (eds.). Agricultural University Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp: 23–51.Google Scholar
  10. Bergh B.O. (1975) Avocados. In: Advances in Fruit Breeding. Janick J., Moore J.N. (eds.). Purdue University Press, West Lafayette. pp: 541–567.Google Scholar
  11. Bergh B.O., Ellstrand N.C. (1986) Taxonomy of the avocado. California Avocado Society Yearbook 70: 135–145.Google Scholar
  12. Bergh B.O., Zentmyer G.A., Whitsell R.M., Boswell S.B., Storey W.B. (1976) Avocado rootstock breeding, specially in relation to Phytophthora. Acta Horticulturae 57: 237–240.Google Scholar
  13. Brokaw W.H. (1988) Avocado clonal rootstock propagation. International Plant Propagators’ Society Combined Proceedings 37: 97–103.Google Scholar
  14. Capote M., Rodríguez N.N., Blanco M. (2000) In vitro propagation of avocado. Tropical Fruits Newsletter 36/37: 3–7.Google Scholar
  15. Cooksey D.A., Ohr D.H., Azad H.R., Menge J.A. and Korsten, L. (1993) Xanthomonas campestris associated with avocado canker in California. Plant Disease 77: 95–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper P.A. (1987) Advances in the micropropagation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Acta Horticulturae 212 (II): 571–575.Google Scholar
  17. Dale J.L., Allen R.N. (1979) Avocado affected by sunblotch disease contains low molecular weight ribonucleic acid. Australasian Plant Pathology 8(1): 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de la Viña G. (1996) Estudio de algunos factores que afectan la capacidad de aclimatación de plantas de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) micropropagado. PhD Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, España.Google Scholar
  19. de la Viña G., Azcón Aguilar C., Barca J.M., Barceló A., Pliego-Alfaro F. (1996) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas in the acclimatization of micropropagated avocado plants. In: Micorrhyzas in Integrated Systems. (From Genes to Plant Development) Azcón Aguilar. C., Barca, J.M. (eds.). EUR Report 16728-EN. Directorate-General XII Science; Research and Development, Brussels pp: 491–494.Google Scholar
  20. de la Viña G., Barceló-Muñoz A., Pliego-Al faro F. (2001) Effect of culture media and irradiance level on growth and morphology of Persea americana Mill. microcuttings. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 65: 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de la Viña, G., Pliego-Alfaro, F., Driscoll, S.P. Mitchel, V.J., Parry, M.A., Lawlor, D.W. (1999) Effects of CO2 and sugars on photosynthesis and composition of avocado leaves grown in vitro. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 37: 587–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Debergh P. (1988) Micropropagation of woody species —State of the art on in vitro aspects. Acta Horticulturae 227: 287–295.Google Scholar
  23. Dixon A., Fuller K.W. (1976) Effect of syntetic auxin levels on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Physiological Plant Pathology 11: 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eggers E.R., Halma F.F. (1937) Rooting Avocado Cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook 22: 121–125.Google Scholar
  25. FAOSTAT (2001) FAOSTAT Database Results 2001. http://apps.fao.org
  26. Favré J.M., Junker B. (1987) In vitro growth of buds taken from seddlings and adult plant material in Quercus robur L. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 8: 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frolich E.F. (1951) Rooting guatemalan avocado cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook 36: 136–138.Google Scholar
  28. Frolich E.F., Platt R.G. (1972) Use of the etiolation technique in rooting avocado cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook 55: 97–109.Google Scholar
  29. Gamborg O.L. (1966) Aromatic metabolism in plants. II Enzymes of the shikimate pathway in suspension cultures of plant cells. Canadian Journal Biochemistry 44: 791–799.Google Scholar
  30. García-Gómez M.L., Sánchez-Romero C., Barceló-Muñoz A., Heredia A., PliegoAlfaro F. (1994) Levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-aspartic acid during adventitious root formation in avocado microcuttings. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(275): 865–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. García-Gómez M.L., Sánchez-Romero C., Barceló-Muñoz A., Heredia A., PliegoAlfaro F. (1995) Peroxidase activity during adventitious root formation in avocado microcuttings. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 1522–1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. George E.F. (1993) Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. I. The Technology. Exegetics Ltd., Edington, England.Google Scholar
  33. Gonzalez-Rosas H., Salazar S.G. (1984) Root induction and vegetative development from avocado plantules (Persea americana Mill.). California Avocado Society Yearbook 46:167–171.Google Scholar
  34. Gustafson C.D., Kadman A. (1970) Effect of some plant hormones on the rooting capacity of avocado cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook 53: 97–100.Google Scholar
  35. Harty P. A. (1985) Propagation of avocado by tissue culture: Development of a culture medium for multiplication of shoots. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 8: 70–71.Google Scholar
  36. Kadman A., Ben Ya’acov A. (1965) A review of experiments on some factors influencing the rooting of avocado cuttings. California Avocado Society Yearbook 49: 67–72.Google Scholar
  37. Kadman A., Ben Ya’acov A. (1970) Rooting of leaf-bearing cuttings. In: Agricultural Research Organization (10 years report, 1960–69). Bet Dagan, Israel. pp: 1960–69.Google Scholar
  38. Kellam M.K., Coffey M.D. (1985) Quantitative comparison of the resistance to Phytophthora root rot in three avocado rootstocks. Phytopathology 75 (2): 230–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Köhne J.S. (1992) Field evaluation of “Hass” avocado grown on Duke-7, G6 and G755C rootstocks. In: Proceedings of the Second World Avocado Congress., Lovatt, C., Holthe, P.A., Arpaia, M.L. (eds.) Vol. 1 University of California, Riverside, California, pp: 301–303.Google Scholar
  40. Kopp L.E. (1966) A taxonomic revision of the genus Persea in the Western Hemisphere (Persea-Lauraceae). Memoirs N. Y. Bot. Garden 14 n°1.Google Scholar
  41. Lloyd G.B., McCown B.H. (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. International Plant Propagators’ Society Combined Proceedings, 30: 421–427.Google Scholar
  42. López Herrera C.J. (1998) Hongos de suelo en el cultivo del aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) del litoral andaluz. V Jornadas de Frutos Tropicales. Colección de Congresos y Jornadas 47/98. Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucía. pp: 139–152.Google Scholar
  43. López Herrera C.J., Flores Pedauyé R., Pliego-Alfaro F., Farré Massip J.M. (1987) El manchado solar del aguacate. Comunicaciones agrarias. Serie Protección Vegetal, n°6. D.G.I.E.A. Junta de Andalucía. 32 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Margara J. (1984) Bases de la Multiplication Végétative. INRA. Versalles. Paris. 262pp.Google Scholar
  45. Marín J.A., Gella R. (1987) Acclimatization of the micropropagated cherry rootstock “Masto de Montafiana” (Prunus cerasus L.). Acta Horticulturae 212: 603–606.Google Scholar
  46. Marín J.A., Gella R. (1988) Is desiccation the cause of the poor survival rate in the acclimatization of micropropagated Prunus cerasus L.? Acta Horticulturae 230: 105–1 12.Google Scholar
  47. Murashige T., Skoog F. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Myburgh L., Kotzé J.M. (1982) Bacterial disease of avocado. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 5: 105–106.Google Scholar
  49. Pâques M., Boxus Ph. (1987) A model to learn “vitrification”, the rootstock apple M.26. Present results. Acta Horticulturae 212: 193–210.Google Scholar
  50. Pegg K.G. (1991) Avocado pests and disorders. Queensland Department of Primary Industries ed., Information Series Q090013, 74 pp.Google Scholar
  51. Pérez Jiménez R.M. (1997) Podredumbres radiculares del aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) en el sur de Andalucía. PhD thesis, Universidad de Málaga. España.Google Scholar
  52. Pliego-Alfaro, F. (1981) A morphogenetic study of the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in vitro. I. Development of a rooting bioassay and its application to studying restoration by grafting of rooting competence in adult shoots. II. Somatic embryogenesis in callus. PhD thesis, University of California, Riverside, USA.Google Scholar
  53. Pliego-Alfaro F. (1988) Development of an in vitro rooting bioassay using juvenile-phase stem cuttings of Persea americana Mill. Journal of Horticultural Science 63 (2): 295–301.Google Scholar
  54. Pliego-Alfaro F., Bergh B.O. (1992) Avocado. In: Biotechnology of Perennial Fruit Crops. Biotechnology in Agriculture n°8. Hammerschlag, F.A., Litz, R.E. (eds.) CAB International. UK. pp: 323–333.Google Scholar
  55. Pliego-Alfaro F., López-Encina C., Barceló-Muñoz A. (1987) Propagation of avocado rootstocks by tissue culture. South African Avocado Growers’ Yearbook 10: 36–39.Google Scholar
  56. Pliego-Alfaro F., Murashige T. (1987) Possible rejuvenation of adult avocado by graftage onto juvenile rootstocks in vitro. Hort Science 22: 1321–1324.Google Scholar
  57. Popenoe W. (1920) Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. MacMillan, New York. 474 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Premkumar A., Barceló-Muñoz A., Pliego-Alfaro F., Quesada M.A., Mercado J.A. (2002a) Influences of exogenous sucrose on juvenile avocado during in vitro cultivation and subsequent ex vitro acclimatization. Tree Physiology (In press).Google Scholar
  59. Premkumar A., Barceló-Muñoz A., Pliego-Alfaro F., Quesada M.A., Mercado J.A. (2002b) Physiological influence of sucrose on juvenile avocado during in vitro cultivation and subsequent ex vitro acclimatization. Acta Horticulturae (In press).Google Scholar
  60. Querci M., Owens R.A., Vargas C., Salazar L.F. (1995) Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid in avocado growing in Peru. Plant Disease 79: 196–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Raave R.D., Zentmyer G.A. (1955) Susceptibility of avocados to Dematophora root rot. California Avocado Society Yearbook 39: 172–174.Google Scholar
  62. Reuveni O., Raviv M. (1976) The role of leaves in the rooting of avocado cuttings. Special Publication. Agricultural Research Organization. Israel 65: 33–35.Google Scholar
  63. Schall S. (1987) La multiplication de l’avocatier (Persea americana Mill. cv. Fuerte) par microbouturage in vitro. Fruits 42 (3): 171–176.Google Scholar
  64. Storey W.B., Bergh B., Zentmyer G.A. (1986) The origin, indigenous range, and dissemination of the avocado. California Avocado Society Yearbook 70:127–133.Google Scholar
  65. Vidal M.T., Azcón-Aguilar C., Barea J.M., Pliego-Alfaro F. (1992) Mycorrhizal inoculation enhances growth and development of micropropagated plants of avocado. HortScience 27(7): 785–787.Google Scholar
  66. Witjaksono, Schaffer, B., Coils, A., Litz, R.E., Moon, P.A. (1999) Avocado shoot culture, plantlet development and CO2 assimilation in an ambient and enhanced CO2 environment. In vitro Cell Developmental Biology-Plant 35: 238–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zentmyer G.A. (1984) Avocado diseases. Tropical Pest Management 30(4): 388–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zirari A., Lionakis S.M. (1994) Effect of cultivar, explant type, etiolation pretreatment and the age of plant material on the in vitro regeneration ability of avocado (Persea americana). Acta Horticulturae 365: 69–76.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Barceló-Muñoz
    • 1
  • F. Pliego-Alfaro
    • 2
  1. 1.C.I.F.A. Cortijo de la CruzChurrianaMálagaSpain
  2. 2.Dpto. Biología VegetalFacultad de Ciencias, Campus de Teatinos s/nMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations