Look Who’s Moving the Goal Posts Now
The abject failure of Turing’s first prediction (of computer success in playing the Imitation Game) confirms the aptness of the Imitation Game test as a test of human level intelligence. It especially belies fears that the test is too easy. At the same time, this failure disconfirms expectations that human level artificial intelligence will be forthcoming any time soon. On the other hand, the success of Turing’s second prediction (that acknowledgment of computer thought processes would become commonplace) in practice amply confirms the thought that computers think in some manner and are possessed of some level of intelligence already. This lends ever-growing support to the hypothesis that computers will think at a human level eventually, despite the abject failure of Turing’s first prediction.
KeywordsGoal Post Unity Objection Phenomenal Consciousness Turing Test Human Level
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics, trans. W.D. Ross (1941) in R. McKeon, ed., The Basic works of Aristotle, New York: Random House, pp. 935–1126.Google Scholar
- Block, N. (1981), Psychologism and Behaviorism, Philosophical Review XC, pp. 5–43.Google Scholar
- Descartes, R. (1637), Discourse on Method, trans. R. Stoothoff (1985) in J. Cottingham, D. Murdoch and R. Stoothoff, eds., The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, Vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–151.Google Scholar
- Dreyfus, H. (1979), What Computers Can’t Do, New York: Harper Colophon.Google Scholar
- Epstein, R. (1992), ‘The Quest for the Thinking Computer’, Al Magazine, 13, pp. 81–91.Google Scholar
- Keller, H. (1912), ‘The Hand of the World’, Out of the Dark: Essays, Letters and Addresses on Physical and Social Vision, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co., pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
- Keller, H. (1993), ‘A New Chime for the Christmas Bells’, Out of the Dark: Essays, Letters and Addresses on Physical and Social Vision, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co., pp. 274–282.Google Scholar
- Hauser, L. (1993), ‘Why Isn’t my Pocket Calculator a Thinking Thing?’, Minds and Machines 3, pp.2–10. Online:http://members.aol.com/lshauser/wimpcatt.html.
- Landau, B. and Gleitman, L. (1985), Language and Experience: Evidence from the Blind Child, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- MacNeil, R. and Lehrer, J. (1997), ‘Big Blue Wins’, NewsHour, May 12. Accessible online:http://www.pbs.orglnewshour/home.html.
- Putnam, H. (1975), ‘The Meaning of “Meaning”’, Mind, Language, and Reality: Philosophical Essays, Vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 215–271.Google Scholar
- Saygin, A.P., Cicekli, 1. and Akman, V. (forthcoming), ‘Turing Test: 50 Years Later.’ Online: http://cogsci.ucsd.eduh/-asaygin/papers/tt50abs.htmlGoogle Scholar
- Searle, J.R. (1992), The Rediscovery of the Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Shieber, S.M. (1994), ‘Lessons from a Restricted Turing Test’, Communications of the ACM 37, pp. 70–78. Online:http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/shieber/papers/loebner-rev-html/loebnerrev-html.html.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turing, A.M. (1950), ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Mind LIX, pp. 433–460.Google Scholar