Advertisement

Disentangling Public from Non-Public Meaning

  • Jonathan Ginzburg
Chapter
  • 215 Downloads
Part of the Text, Speech and Language Technology book series (TLTB, volume 22)

Abstract

Analyses of interaction need to characterize not solely’ success conditions’, a traditional and important means of analyzing action, but also ‘clarification potential’, the range of potential clarification requests (CRs) available in the aftermath of a conversational move. After briefly considering the very productive and effective ways of producing CRs relating to the grammatically governed content of an utterance, I turn to CRs that pertain to a conversational participant’s non-public intentions, the commonest being the bare Why?, dubbed here Whymeta. I demonstrate that Whymeta shows distinct behaviour from CRs that pertain to grammatically governed content. The most prominent feature perhaps being that, whereas the latter are almost invariably adjacent to the utterances whose clarification they seek, non-adjacency is quite natural for Whymeta. It can occur at a stage where a second part adjacency pair response has been provided to the utterance it pertains to, suggesting that the information Whymeta is seeking is a ‘useful extra’, not an essential ingredient required for providing an appropriate response. Rather than treat Whymeta as clarifying a contextually instantiable goals/plan parameter, I propose that it be treated as an instance of a metadiscursive utterance like I don’t want to talk about this.

Keywords

Dialogue Clarification Request Plan Recognition Grounding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J. and Perrault, R. (1980). Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence, 15:143–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asher, N. (1993). Reference to Abstract Objects in English: a Philosophical Semantics for Natural Language Metaphysics. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  3. Bohlin, P., Cooper, R., Engdahl, E., and Larsson, S. (1999). Information states and dialogue move engines. Gothenburg Papers in Computational Linguistics.Google Scholar
  4. Carpenter, B. (1993). Skeptical and credulous default unification with applications to templates and inheritance. In T. Briscoe, A. Copestake, V. d. P., editor, Inheritance, Defaults, and the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  5. Clark, H. (1996). Using Language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, R. (1998). Mixing situation theory and type theory to formalize information states in dialogue exchanges. In Hulstijn, J. and Nijholt, A., editors, Proceedings of Twen Dial 98, 13th Twente workshop on Language Technology. Twente University, Twente.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, R., Larsson, S., Hieronymus, J., Ericsson, S., Engdahl, E., and Ljunglof, P. (2000). GODIS and Questions Under Discussion. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Available from http://www.ling.gu.se/research/projects/trindi.Google Scholar
  8. Fernandez, R. and Ginzburg, J. Non-sentential utterances: a corpus-based study. Traitement Automatique des Languages. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  9. Garrod, S. and Pickering, M. Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioural and Brain Sciences. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  10. Ginzburg, J. (1996). Interrogatives: Questions, facts, and dialogue. In Lappin, S., editor, Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. Ginzburg, J. (1997a). On some semantic consequences of turn taking. In Dekker, P., Stokhof, M., and Venema, Y., editors, Proceedings of the 11th Amsterdam Colloquium on Formal Semantics and Logic, pages 145–150. ILLC, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  12. Ginzburg, J. (1997b). Structural mismatch in dialogue. In Jaeger, G. and Benz, A., editors, Proceedings of MunDial 97 (Technical Report 97–106), pages 59–80. Universitaet Muenchen Centrum fuer Informations-und Sprachverarbeitung, Muenchen.Google Scholar
  13. Ginzburg, J. (2001a). Clarification ellipsis and nominal anaphora. In Bunt, H., Muskens, R., and Thijsse, E., editors, Computing Meaning: Volume 2, number 77 in Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  14. Ginzburg, J. (2001b). Turn taking puzzles and the semantics of adjuncts. Paper presented at Informatics Faculty Seminar, October 26, 2001.Google Scholar
  15. Ginzburg, J. (forthcoming). Semantics and Interaction in Dialogue. CSLI Publications and Cambridge University Press, Stanford: California. Draft chapters available from http://www.dcs.kcl.ac.uk/staff/ginzburg.Google Scholar
  16. Ginzburg, J. and Cooper, R. Clarification, ellipsis, and the nature of contextual updates. Linguistics and Philosophy, to appear.Google Scholar
  17. Ginzburg, J. and Cooper, R. (2001). Resolving ellipsis in clarification. In Proceedings of the 39th Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.Google Scholar
  18. Ginzburg, J. and Sag, I. A. (2000). Interrogative Investigations: the form, meaning and use of English Interrogatives. Number 123 in CSLI Lecture Notes. CSLI Publications, Stanford: California.Google Scholar
  19. Gregory, H. and Lappin, S. (1999). Antecedent contained ellipsis in hpsg. In Webelhuth, G., Koenig, J. P., and Kathol, A., editors, Lexical and Constructional Aspects of Linguistic Explanation, pages 331–356. CSLI Publications, Stanford.Google Scholar
  20. Hamblin, C. L. (1970). Fallacies. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  21. Larsson, S. (2002). Issue based Dialogue Management. PhD thesis, Gothenburg University.Google Scholar
  22. Levinson, S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  23. Milward, D. (2000). Distributing representation for robust interpretation of dialogue utterances. ACL.Google Scholar
  24. Montague, R. (1974). Pragmatics. In Thomason, R., editor, Formal Philosophy. Yale UP, New Haven.Google Scholar
  25. Moore, J. (1995). Participating in Explanatory Dialogues. Bradford Books. MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  26. Purver, M. (2001). Score: A tool for searching the bnc. Technical report, King’s College, London.Google Scholar
  27. Purver, M. (2002). Processing of unknown words in a dialogue system. In Sig-Dial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue.Google Scholar
  28. Purver, M., Ginzburg, J., and Healey, P. On the means for clarification in dialogue. In (This Volume).Google Scholar
  29. Scott, C., Clancey, W., Davis, R., and Shortliffe, E. (1984). Methods for generating explanations. In Buchanan, B. and Shortliffe, E., editors, Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project, pages 338–362. Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  30. Sidner, C. (1981). Focusing for interpretation of pronouns. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, 4:217–231.Google Scholar
  31. Stalnaker, R. C. (1978). Assertion. In Cole, P., editor, Syntax and Semantics, Volume 9, pages 315–332. AP, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Webber, B. (1991). Structure and ostension in the interpretation of discourse deixis. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14:107–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Ginzburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Computer ScienceKing’s CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations