A National Profile of Academic Women in Research Universities

  • Helen S. Astin
  • Christine M. Cress
Part of the Innovations in Science Education and Technology book series (ISET, volume 15)


During the last three decades, the pool of female Ph.D. recipients potentially available for academic appointments has increased dramatically. In 1977, women earned 25 percent of awarded doctoral degrees. A decade later (1987), this percentage had risen to 35 percent. By 1996, women constituted 40 percent of the total number of doctorates and 47 percent of the pool of U.S. doctoral recipients (National Research Council 1996). The representation of women faculty within American higher education institutions, however, has not increased at the same rate. For example, in 1972–73 women represented 22 percent of all faculty across academic ranks. By 1982, they occupied 27 percent of faculty positions, and by 1995–96 women accounted for 35 percent of all faculty (Vetter and Babco 1986; Sax, Astin, Arredondo, and Korn 1996). In other words, there has been a relatively slow rate of gender integration in the academy (West 1995).


Academic Rank Russell Sage Foundation Woman Faculty Document Reproduction Instructional Technique 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen S. Astin
  • Christine M. Cress

There are no affiliations available

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