Pacemaker Energy Sources, Old and New
Implantable cardiac pacemakers have used many of the power sources known to man, from Parsonnet’s watch escapement mechanisms and piezo electric generators through primary power sources of most of the alkali anode metals against most of the halogen cathodes. Primary batteries, rechargeable batteries and isotope nuclear decay have all been used. Biological energy in biogalvanic cells, biofuel cells, and hybrids of both, have been investigated.
KeywordsBattery System Biofuel Cell Lithium Bromide Nuclear Decay Lead Iodide
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