Pacemaker Energy Sources, Old and New

  • Wilson Greatbatch


Implantable cardiac pacemakers have used many of the power sources known to man, from Parsonnet’s watch escapement mechanisms and piezo electric generators through primary power sources of most of the alkali anode metals against most of the halogen cathodes. Primary batteries, rechargeable batteries and isotope nuclear decay have all been used. Biological energy in biogalvanic cells, biofuel cells, and hybrids of both, have been investigated.


Battery System Biofuel Cell Lithium Bromide Nuclear Decay Lead Iodide 
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  1. 1.
    Schneider A., Moser J., Webb T.H.E. and Desmond J.E., A new high energy density cell with a lithium anode. Proc. Proc. U.S. Army Signal Corps. Power Sources Conf. Atlantic City (1970).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Great Batch W., Lee J., Mathias W., Eldridge M., Moser J. and Schneider A., The solid-state lithium battery: a new improved chemical power source for implantable cardiac pacemakers IEEE BME Transactions 18–5: 317 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers by, The Hague 1978

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  • Wilson Greatbatch

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