Conspectus of Carabid Classification: History, Holomorphology, and Higher Taxa

  • George E. Ball


The purpose of an historical presentation is to develop in a tempral context events and circumstances that led to the state of affairs perceived at a particular time. History is, collectively, a record of the activities of Homo sapiens. In preparing an account of a portion of this record, one necessarily picks and chooses, and generally these activities are based on the viewpoint espoused by the author of the history. Or, put another way, a history is a reconstruction of events. As one knows, no two builders are apt to develop their structures in exactly the same way though both may use very similar materials. So, what follows is not the history of carabid classification, but a history as seen by one who appreciates and respects the workers of the past, who believes that science advances by evolution rather than by revolution, and who, as an evolutionist, believes that phylogeny and classification must be linked more or less closely.


Morphine Hunt Tria Phen Cote 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ali, H. A. 1967. The Higher Classification of the Carabidae and the Significance of Internal Characters [sic.]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d’Egypte 51:211–231.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, R. T. 1968. A Synopsis of the Tribe Morionini in the Western Hemisphere with Descriptions of Two New Species. Caribbean Journal of Science 8(3–4): 141–163.Google Scholar
  3. —. 1972. A Revision of the Genus Loxandrus LeConte (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in North America. Entomologica Americana 46(1): 1–184.Google Scholar
  4. Andrewes, H. E. 1929. Coleoptera Carabidae. Volume I, Carabinae in J. Stephenson, ed. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor and Francis, London. xviii+431 pp., 5 pls.Google Scholar
  5. —. 1935. Coleoptera Carabidae. Volume II, Harpalinae-I in R. B. S. Sewell, ed. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor and Francis, London. xvi+323 pp., 5 pls.Google Scholar
  6. —. 1947. Entomological Results from the Swedish Expedition 1934 to Burma and British India. Arkiv for Zoologi 38(20): 1–49, pls. I-VI.Google Scholar
  7. Audouin, J. V. & A. Brullé. 1834. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, traitant de leur Organization et de leurs moeurs en général, et comprenant leur classification et la description des espèces. Volume 4, Coléoptères. I. F. D. Pillot, Paris. 479 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Ball, G. E. 1956. Notes on the Genus Zacotus LeConte, 1869, and on the Classification of the Tribe Broscini (Broscidae sensu Jeannel, 1941. Coleoptera, Carabidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 10(3):33–52.Google Scholar
  9. —. 1959. A Taxonomic Study of the North American Licinini with Notes on the Old World Species of the Genus Diplocheila Brullé (Coleoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 16:1–258; 15 pls.Google Scholar
  10. —. 1960. Carabidae, Fascicle 4. Pages 55–210 in R. H. Arnett, The Beetles of the United States. The Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D.C. xi+ 1112 pp.Google Scholar
  11. —. 1966a. A Revision of the North American Species of the Subgenus Cryobius (Pterostichus, Carabidae, Coleoptera). Opuscula Entomologica, Suppl. 28:1–166.Google Scholar
  12. —. 1966b. The taxonomy of the subgenus Scaphinotus Dejean, with particular reference to the subspecies of Scaphinotus petersi Roeschke (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cychrini). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92:687–722.Google Scholar
  13. —. 1972. Classification of the Species of the Harpalus Subgenus Glanodes Casey (Carabidae, Coleoptera). Coleopterists Bulletin 26(4):179–204.Google Scholar
  14. —. 1975. Pericaline Lebiini: Notes on Classification, a Synopsis of the New World Genera, and a Revision of the Genus Phloeoxena Chaudojr (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 11(2): 143–242.Google Scholar
  15. —. 1976. Aztecarpalus Ball: New Species from Oaxaca, Mexico, Re-classification, and a Reconstructed Phylogeny of the hebescens Group (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini). Coleopterists Bulletin 30(1):61–72.Google Scholar
  16. —. & T. L. Erwin. 1969. A Taxonomic Synopsis of the Tribe Loricerini. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47(5): 877–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —. & J. Nègre. 1972. The Taxonomy of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Calathus Bonelli (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Agonini). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 98:412–533.Google Scholar
  18. Bänninger, M. 1927a. Die Ozaenini. Deutsches Entomologisches Zeitschrift 1927:177–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. —. 1927b. Zur Erforschung des Persischen Golfes. Cicindis John-Beckeri n. sp. Supplementa Entomologica 16:119–121.Google Scholar
  20. —. 1949. Ueber Carabinae (Col.) Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen III, mit Bemerkungen zu R. Jeannels neuer Einteilung der Carabiden. Mitteilungen der Müncher Entomologischen Gesellschaft e. V. 35–39(1945–1949): 127–157.Google Scholar
  21. Basford, N. L., J. E. Butler, C. A. Leone & F. J. Rohlf. 1968. Immunologic Comparisons of Selected Coleoptera with Analyses of Relationships using Numerical Taxonomic Methods. Systematic Zoology 17(4): 388–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Basilewsky, P. 1953. Carabidae (Coleoptera Adephaga). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba. Mission G. F. de Witte, Fascicle 10. Institute des Parcs Nationales du Congo Belge, Bruxelles. 252 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Bates, H. W. 1881-1884. Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae. Volume 1, Part 1 in F. D. Godman and O. Salvin, eds. 1879–1911. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Coleoptera, 7 volumes in 17 parts. London. 1881, pp. 1–40, pls. i–ii; 1882, pp. 41–152, pls. iii-v; 1883, pp. 153–256, pls. vi-xii; 1884, pp. 257–299, pl. xiii.Google Scholar
  24. Bell, R. T. 1966. Trachypachus and the Origin of the Hydradephaga. Coleopterists Bulletin 20(4): 107–112.Google Scholar
  25. —. 1967. Coxal Cavities and the Classification of the Adephaga (Coleoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60(1): 101–107.Google Scholar
  26. Bils, W. 1976. Da& Abdomenende weiblicher, terrestrisch Lebender Adephaga (Coleoptera) und seine Bedeutung für die Phylogenie. Zoomorphologie 84(2): 113–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Blackwelder, R. E. 1962. Animal Taxonomy and the New Systematics. Pages 1–57 in B. Glass, ed. Survey of Biological Progress. Volume 4.Google Scholar
  28. —. 1967. Taxonomy. A Text and Reference Book. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, London, Sydney. ix+698 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Bonelli, F. A. 1810. Tabula Synoptica [included with reprints of the following paper, but not in the published volume]. Observations Entomologiques. Première Partie. Memorie della Reale Accademia della Scienze di Torino 18:21–78.Google Scholar
  30. Boving, A. G. & F.C. Craighead. 1930. An Illustrated Synopsis of the Principal Larval Forms of the Order Coleoptera. Entomologica Americana, New Ser., 11(1–4): 1–351; pls. 1–125.Google Scholar
  31. Burmeister, M. H. 1841. Observations sur les Affinities Naturelles de la Famille des Paussidae. Magazin de Zoologie 76:1–15; 1 pl.Google Scholar
  32. Cain, A. J. 1959. Deductive and Inductuve Methods in post-Linnean Taxonomy. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 170(1957–58), Part 2:185–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chaudoir, M. de. 1846. Note sur le groupe des Stomides et description d’un nouveau genus de celui des Somoplatides. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 19(2):511–542.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1870. Monographie des Lébiides. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 43:111–255.Google Scholar
  35. —. 1873. Essai Monographique sur le genre Cymindis proprement dit. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 17:53–120.Google Scholar
  36. —. 1876. Étude Monographique des Masoréides, des Tetragonodérides, et du genre Nematotarsus. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 51(2): 1–84.Google Scholar
  37. Clairville, J. P. 1806. Entomologie Helvétique ou catalogue des Insectes de la Suisse ranges d’après une nouvelle méthode. Volume 2. Zurich. 247 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Crowson, R. A. 1955. The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. Nathaniel Lloyd and Co., Ltd., London. 187 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Csiki, E. 1927-1933. Coleoptera, Carabidae. In W. Junk and S. Schenkung. 1909-Coleopterum Catalogus. W. Junk, Berlin and’ s-Gravenhage. Pars 91, Carabinae I, pages 1–314 (1927); Pars 92, Carabinae II, pages 315–622 (1927); Pars 97, Mormolycinae, Harpalinae I, pages 1–226 (1928); Pars 98, Harpalinae, II, pages 227–345 (1928); Pars 104, Harpalinae III, pages 347–527 (1929); Pars 112, Harpalinae IV, pages 529–737 (1930); Pars 115, Harpalinae V, pages 739–1022 (1931); Pars 121, Harpalinae VI, pages 1023–1278 (1932); Pars 124, Harpalinae VII, pages 1279–1598 (1932); Pars 126, Harpalinae VIII, pages 1599–1933 (1933); Pars 127, Carabinae III, pages 623–648 (1933-A. Hetschko).Google Scholar
  40. —. 1946. Die Käferfauna des Karpaten-Beckens. Volume 1. Allgemeiner Teil und Caraboidea. Budapest. 798 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Darlington, P. J., Jr. 1933. A New Tribe of Carabidae (Coleoptera) from Western United States. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 9:110–114.Google Scholar
  42. —. 1938. The American Patrobini (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Entomologica Americana, New Ser., 18(4): 135–183; 10 pls.Google Scholar
  43. —. 1950. Paussid Beetles. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 76:47–142.Google Scholar
  44. —. 1968. The Carabid Beetles of New Guinea. Part III. Harpalinae (continued): Perigonini to Pseudomorphini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 137(1): 1–253.Google Scholar
  45. —. 1971. Modern Taxonomy, Reality, and Usefulness. Systematic Zoology 20(3): 341–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection of the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Murray, London.Google Scholar
  47. Dejean, P. F. M. A. 1825-1831. Species Général des Coléoptères de la Collection de M. le Comte Dejean. Mequignon-Marvis, Paris. 5 vols. 1825, 1:1–463, i–xxx; 1826, 2:1–501, i-viii; 1828, 3:1–556, i–vii; 1829, 4:1–520, i-vii; 1831, 5:1–883, i-viii.Google Scholar
  48. Dierckx, F. 1899. Étude comparée des glandes pygidiennes chez les Carabides et les Dytiscides avec quelques remarques sur les Carabides. La Cellule 16:61–176.Google Scholar
  49. —. 1901. Les glandes pygidiennes des Coléoptères (Seconde Memoire): Carabidas (Bombardiers, etc.) Paussides, Cicindélides, Staphylinides. La Cellule 18:255–310.Google Scholar
  50. Emden, F. I. van. 1936. Bemerkungen zur Classification der Carabidae: Carabinae und Harpalinae piliferae. Entomologische Blätter 32:12–17, 41–52.Google Scholar
  51. —. 1942. A Key to the Genera of Larval Carabidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 92:1–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. —. 1953. The Larva of Morion and its Systematic Position (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 15(1): 51–54.Google Scholar
  53. Erichson, W. F. 1837. Die Käfer der Mark Brandenburg. Erster Band. Erster Abtheilung. F. H. Movin, Berlin. viii+ 740 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Erwin, T. L. 1970. A Reclassification of the Bombardier Beetles and a Taxonomic Revision of the North and Middle American Species. Quaestiones Entomologicae 6:4–215.Google Scholar
  55. —. 1973. Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini), Part I: A Revision of the Neotropical Genus Xystosomus Schaum. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 140:1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. —. 1974. Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini), Part II: A Revision of the New World-Australian Genus Pericompsus LeConte. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 162:i–iv, 1–96.Google Scholar
  57. —. 1975. Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini), Part III: Systematics, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the Genus Tachyta Kirby. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 208:i–iii, 1–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. —. & G. E. Ball. 1972. Classification of the ovipennis and trifaria Groups of Nebria Latreille. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 85(7): 77–108.Google Scholar
  59. Fabricius, J. C. 1801. Systema Eleutheratorum. Volume 1. Bibliopol. Acad. Kiliae. xxiv + 506 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Forsyth, D. J. 1972. The Structure of the Pygidial Glands of Carabidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 32(4):253–309.Google Scholar
  61. Freitag, R. 1965. A Revision of the North American Species of the Cicindela maritima Group with a Study of Hybridization between Cicindela duodecimguttata and oregona. Quaestiones Entomologicae 1(3):87–170.Google Scholar
  62. —. 1969. A Revision of the Species of the Genus Evarthus LeConte (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 5(2): 89–211.Google Scholar
  63. Ganglbauer, L. 1892. Die Käfer von Mitteleuropa. Die Käfer der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie, Deutschlands, der Schweiz, sowie des franzöischen und italienischen Alpen-gebietes. Volume 1, Familienreihe Caraboidea. Carl Gerold’s Sohn, Wien. 557 pp.Google Scholar
  64. Geoffroy, E. L. 1762. Histoire abrégée des Insectes qui se trouvent aux environs de Paris, dans laquelle ses animaux rangés suivant un ordre méthodique. Durand, Paris. Vol. 1, 523 pp.; Vol. 2, 690 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Goulet, H. 1974a. Biology and Relationships of Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz and Pterostichus pensylvanicus LeConte. Quaestiones Entomologicae 10(1):3–33.Google Scholar
  66. —. 1974b. Classification of the North and Middle American Species of the Genus Pelmatellus Bates (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini). Quaestiones Entomologicae 10(2): 80–102.Google Scholar
  67. Gyllenhal, L. 1810. Insecta Suecica. Volume 1, Pars 2, Classis 1: Coleoptera sive Eleuterata. F. J. Leverentz, Scans. xx+660 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Hennig, W. 1950. Grundzüge Einer Theorie der Phylogenetischen Systematik. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin. 370 pp.Google Scholar
  69. —. 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, London. 268 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Heyden, L. F. J. D. von, E. Reitter & J. Weise. 1891. Catalogus Coleopterorum Europae, Caucasi et Armeniae Rossicae. Berlin, Modling, Caen. viii+420 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Hlavac, T. 1971. Differentiation of the Carabid Antenna Cleaner. Psyche 78(1–2):51–66.Google Scholar
  72. Hope, F. W. 1838. The Coleopterists’ Manual, Part the Second, Containing the Predaceous Land and Water Beetles of Linnaeus and Fabricius. H. G. Bohn, London. xvi+ 168 pp., 3 colored pls.Google Scholar
  73. Horn, G. H. 1881. On the Genera of Carabidae with Special Reference to the Fauna of Boreal America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 9:91–196; pls. 1–10.Google Scholar
  74. Iakobson, G. G. 1905-1908. Zhuki Rossii i Zapadnoĭ Europy; rukovodstvo k opredieleniiu Zhukov. Volume 1. A. F. Devrient, St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  75. Ishikawa, R. 1966. Studies on Some Species of Japanese Carabina (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Bulletin of the National Science Museum 9(1): 9–26.Google Scholar
  76. —. 1971. Notes on Procrustes (Megodontus) aino Rost with Descriptions of New Subspecies (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Bulletin of the National Science Museum 14(4):571–577;4 pls.Google Scholar
  77. —. 1973. Notes on Some Basic Problems in the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Subtribe Carabina (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Bulletin of the National Science Museum 16(2): 191–215.Google Scholar
  78. Jacquelin Duval, P. N. C. 1857. Manuel Entomologique. Genera des Coléoptères d’Europe. Comprenenant leur classification en familles naturelles, la description de tous les genres, des tableux dichotomiques destinés a faciliter l’étude, le catalogue de toutes les espèces de nombreux dessins au trait de charactères. Tome 1. A. Deyrolle, Paris. cclxxvi+ 140 pp., pls. 1–42. Catalogue, 52 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Jeannel, R. 1926-1930. Monographie des Trechinae. Morphologie comparée et distribution géographique d’un groupe de Coléoptères. Parts 1–4. L’Abeille. 1926, Part 1, 32:221–550; 1927, Part 2, 33:1–592; 1928, Part 3, 35:1–808; 1930, Part 4, 34:59–122.Google Scholar
  80. —. 1940. Les calosomes. Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, New Ser., 13(1): 1–233; 8 pls.Google Scholar
  81. —. 1941-1942. Coléoptères Carabiques. Parts 1–2. Faune de France, 1173 pp. 1941, Part 1, 39:1–571; 1942, Part 2, 40:573–1173.Google Scholar
  82. —. 1946-1949. Coléoptères Carabiques de la Region Malgache. Parts 1–3. Faune de l’Empire Français, 1146 pp. 1946, Part 1, 6:1–371; 1948, Part 2, 10:373–765; 1949, Part 3, 11:767–1146.Google Scholar
  83. Jedlička, A. 1941. Versuch einer Mongraphie der palaarktischen Carabiden-Gattungen mit abgestutzten Flugeidecken (Truncatipennen) mit Berucksichtigung der Indischen Fauna. (Published by the author) 27 pp., 2 pls.Google Scholar
  84. Kryzhanovsky, O. L. 1976. Revised Classification of the Family Carabidae [English translation from Russian]. Entomological Review 1:80–91.Google Scholar
  85. Lacordaire, T. 1854. Histoire naturelle des Insectes, genera des Coléoptères ou exposé methodique et critique de tous les genres proposés jusqu’ici dans cet ordre d’Insectes. Volume 1. Cicindeletes-Palpicornes. Libraire Encyclopédique de Roret.Google Scholar
  86. Laporte, F. L. N. de. 1834. Études Entomologiques, ou description d’insectes nouveaux, et observations sur la synonymie. Part 1, Fascicle 1. Paris. pp. 1–94.Google Scholar
  87. —. & M. Brullé. 1840. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Coléoptères. Tome premier. P. Dumeril, Paris. cxxx+ 324 pp., 19 pls.Google Scholar
  88. Lapouge, G. V. de. 1929–1931. Coleoptera, fam. Carabidae: subfam. Carabinae. In P. Wystsman, ed. Genera Insectorum. Bruxelles. 580 pp. 1929, Carabinae I, Fascicule 192A, pp. 1–153, 1 pl.; Carabinae II, Fascicule 192A, pp. 155–291; 1931, Carabinae III, Fascicule 192B, pp. 293–580.Google Scholar
  89. Larson, D. J. 1969. A Revision of the Genera Philophuga Motschoulsky and Tecnophilus Chaudoir, with Notes on the North American Callidina (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 5(1): 15–84.Google Scholar
  90. Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Volume 3. F. Dufart, Paris. xii+467 pp.Google Scholar
  91. —. 1810. Considérations Générales sur l’ordre naturel des animaux composant les classes des Crustacés des Arachnides, et des Insectes; avec un tableau methodique de leurs genres disposes en familles. F. Schoell, Paris. 444 pp.Google Scholar
  92. —. 1829. Les crustacées, les arachnides et les insectes, distribues en familles naturelles, ouvrage formant les tomes 4 et 5 de celui de M. le Baron Cuvier sur le Regne Animal (deuxième edition), Volume 1. Paris. 584 pp.Google Scholar
  93. LeConte, J. L. 1853. Notes on the Classification of the Carabidae of the United States. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Ser. 2, 10:363–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. —. & G. H. Horn. 1883. Classification of the Coleoptera of North America. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 507, 26(4):i–xxxvii, 1–567.Google Scholar
  95. Lindroth, C. H. 1957. The Linnaean Species of Carabid Beetles. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43(291):325–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. —. 1961-1969. The Ground-Beetles (Carabidae, excl. Cicindelinae) of Canada and Alaska. Parts 1–6. Opscuia Entomologica, xlviii+ 1192 pp. 1961, Part 2, Suppl. 20:1–200; 1963, Part 3, Suppl. 24:201–408; 1966, Part 4, Suppl. 29:409–648; 1968, Part 5, Suppl. 33:649–944; 1969, Part 6, Suppl. 34:945–1192; 1969. Part 1, Suppl. 35:i+xlviii.Google Scholar
  97. —. 1973. Systematics Specializes between Fabricius and Darwin: 1800–1859. Pages 119–154 in R. F. Smith, T. E. Mittler, and C. N. Smith, eds. History of Entomology. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, California. viii+517 pp.Google Scholar
  98. —. 1974. On the Elytral Microsculpture of Carabid Beetles. Entomologica Scandinavica 5(3–4):251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Linné, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decim, reformata. Volume 1. Lavrentii Salvii, Holmiae. 823 pp.Google Scholar
  100. —. 1767. Systema Naturae editio duodecim reformata. Volume 1, pars 2. Lavrentii Salvii, Holmiae. pp. 533–1327.Google Scholar
  101. MacLeay, W. S. 1819. Horae Entomolgicae; or Essays on the Annulose Animals. Volume 1, Part 1. London. 524 pp., 3 pls.Google Scholar
  102. —. 1825. Annulosa Javanica, or an Attempt to Illustrate the Natural Affinities and Analogies of the Insects Collected in Java by T. Horsfield. London. 50 pp., 1 pl.Google Scholar
  103. Madge, R. B. 1967. A Revision of the Genus Lebia Latreille in American North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 3(3): 139–242.Google Scholar
  104. Moore, B. P. 1963. Studies on Australian Carabidae (Coleoptera) 3. The Psydrinae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 115(11): 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. —. 1964. Australian Larval Carabidae of the Subfamilies Broscinae, Psydrinae, and Pseudomorphinae. Pacific Insects 6(2):242–246.Google Scholar
  106. —. 1966. The Larva of Pamborus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and its Systematic Position. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Ser. B, 35(1–2): 1–4.Google Scholar
  107. —. & B. E. Wallbank. 1968. Chemical Composition of the Defensive Secretions in Carabid Beetles and Its Importance as a Taxonomic Character. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London, Ser. B, 37(5–6):62–72.Google Scholar
  108. Mouffet, T. 1634. Insectorum sive minimorum animalium theatrum. Thomas Cotes, London. 326 pp.Google Scholar
  109. Nakane, T. 1960. Studies in the Carabidae. The Scientific Reports of the Kyoto Prefecture University (Natural Science and Living Science) 3(2): 17–44.Google Scholar
  110. —. 1962. Coleoptera Carabidae (I). Pages 1–98, 6 pls. in Insecta Japonica, Series 2, Part 3. Hokuryukan Publishing Co., Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  111. Nègre, J. 1955. Un genre nouveau de Carabidae africains. Memoires de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 27:378–379.Google Scholar
  112. Noonan, G. R. 1973. The Anisodactylines (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini); Classification, Evolution, and Zoogeography. Quaestiones Entomologicae 9(4): 266–480.Google Scholar
  113. —. 1975. Bionomics, Evolution, and Zoogeography of members of the Genus Dicheirus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 51(1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  114. Notman, H. 1925. A Review of the Beetle Family Pseudomorphidae, and a suggestion for a Rearrangement of the Adephaga, with Descriptions of a New Genus and New Species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 67(14): 1–34.Google Scholar
  115. Peringuey, L. 1896. A descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of South Africa. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 7:i–xiv, 99–623, pls. 3–10. [The volume is dated 1896, but is believed to have been published in February, 1897.] Ray, J. 1710. Historia Insectorum. Churchill, London. xv+ 375 pp., Appendix, pp. 377–400.Google Scholar
  116. Redtenbacher, L. 1874. Fauna Austriaca. Volume 1. Die Käfer. Carl Gerhold’s Sohn, Wien. cliii+564pp., 2 pls.Google Scholar
  117. Regenfuss, H. 1975. Die Antennen-Putzeinrichtung der Adephaga (Coleoptera), parallele evolutive Vervollkommung einer komplexer Struktur. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolution-sforschung 13:278–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reichardt, H. 1967. A Monographic Revision of the American Galeritini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Arquivos de Zoologia 15(1–2): 1–176.Google Scholar
  119. —. 1974. Monograph of the Neotropical Helluonini, with Notes and Discussions on Old World Forms (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Studia Entomologica 17:211–302.Google Scholar
  120. Samouelle, G. 1824. The Entomologist’s Useful Compendium. 2nd ed. Longman, Hunt [and others], London. 496 pp.Google Scholar
  121. Schaum, H. 1856-1860. Cicindelidae und Carabidae. In W. F. Erichson, Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschlands. Band I, 1. Berlin. vi+ 791 pp. 1856, pp. 1–352; 1857, pp. 353–552; 1860, pp. 553–791.Google Scholar
  122. —. 1860. Das System dar Carabicinen. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 4:161–179.Google Scholar
  123. Schiødte, J. M. C. 1841. Genera og species af Danmarks Eleutherata at tjene som fauna for denne orden og som ideledning til drns anatomie og historic Forstebind. Paa kongelig Bekostning, Kjobenhavn. xii+ 612 pp., 24 pls.Google Scholar
  124. —. 1855. Om nogle hidtil oversete Bygningsforhold i Insekternes Thorax der Vise sig at vaere af gjennemgribende Betydning for at naturligt Familie-System. Ofversigt Kongl. Dansk Videnskaps Selsk Forhandlingar 1855: 360–364.Google Scholar
  125. Schmidt-Goebel, H. M. 1846. Faunula coleopterorum Birmaniae, adjectis nonnulis Bengaliae indigenis. Lieferung 1. Prague. pp. 1–94, pls. 1–3.Google Scholar
  126. Scott, P. D., H. R. Hepburn & R. M. Crewe. 1975. Pygidial Defensive Secretions of Some Carabid Beetles. Insect Biochemistry 5:805–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Semenov-Tian-Shanskij, A. 1889. Diagnoses Coleopterorum novorum ex Asia Centrali et Orientali. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 23:348–403.Google Scholar
  128. Shuckard, W. E. 1839. Elements of British Entomology. Hippolyte Baillière, London. 240 pp.Google Scholar
  129. Simpson, G. G. 1961. Principles of Animal Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New York. xiii+247 pp.Google Scholar
  130. Sloane, T. G. 1923. The Classification of the Family Carabidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 1923:234–250; Supplementary Note, 250a-250c.Google Scholar
  131. Stephens, J. F. 1826–1846. Illustrations of British Entomology, or a Synopsis of Indigenous Insects: Containing their Generic and Specific Distinctions; with an Account of their Metamorphoses. Times of Appearance, Localities, Food, and Economy, as far as is Practicable. Mandibulata, 7 volumes. Baldwin and Cradock, London. 1828, Vol.1, pp. 77–186, pls. 6–9; 1829, Vol. 2, pp. 1–112, pls. 10–14.Google Scholar
  132. Thomson, C. G. 1859. Skandinaviens Coleoptera, synopskit bearbetade. I. Tom. Berlinska Botryckeriet, Lund. Foreword + 304 pp.Google Scholar
  133. Tuxen, S. L. 1973. Entomology systematizes and describes: 1700–1815. Pages 95–118 in R. F. Smith, T. E. Mittler, and C. N. Smith. History of Entomology. Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto, California. viii+ 517 pp.Google Scholar
  134. Westwood, J. O. 1839. An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects; Founded on the Natural Habits and Corresponding Organization of the Different Families. Volume 1. Longman, Orme [and others], London. xii+462 pp.Google Scholar
  135. Whitehead, D. R. 1972. Classification, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of Schizogenius Putzeys. Quaestiones Entomologicae 8(3): 131–348.Google Scholar
  136. —. & G. E. Ball. 1975. Classification of the Middle American Genus Cyrtolaus Bates (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichini). Quaestiones Entomologicae 11(4): 591–619.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers, The Hague 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • George E. Ball

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations