Conformational Analysis of Snake Toxins by Laser Raman Spectroscopy
Conformations of snake toxins, neurotoxins and hemorrhagic toxin were analyzed by laser Raman spectroscopy. All sea snake neurotoxins consist of antiparallel β-sheet and β-reverse turn structures. Hemorrhagic toxin e isolated from western diamondback rattlesnake is a zinc dependent protease. Judging from the Raman spectra, hemorrhagic toxin e consists of some α-helix with a high degree of random coil or β-reverse turn structure. All these toxins have gauche-gauche-gauche conformation of C-C-S-S-C-C according to S-S stretching vibration frequency. The tyrosine residue of most sea snake neurotoxins is buried as I830 is stronger than I850. From the 1361 cm−1 band, it is concluded that the tryptopnan residue of neurotoxins is exposed to the outside of the molecule.
KeywordsConformational Analysis Laser RAMAN Spectroscopy Stretch Vibration Frequency Turn Structure Major Toxin
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.A. T. Tu, Venoms: Chemistry and Molecular Biology, John Wiley, New York, 560 pages (1977).Google Scholar
- 4.B. G. Frushour and S. L. König, Adv. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy 1, 35 (1975).Google Scholar
- 6.A. T. Tu, J. B. Bjarnason, and V. J. Hruby, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 533, 530 (1978).Google Scholar
- 7.V. J. Hruby, K. K. Deb, J. Fox, J. Bjarnason, and A. T. Tu, J. Biol. Chem., in press (1978).Google Scholar
- 10.M. Pezolet, M. Pigeon-Gosselin, and L. Coulombe, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 453, 502 (1976).Google Scholar
- 13.N. T. Yu, T. S. Lin, and A. T. Tu, J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1782 (1975).Google Scholar
- 17.M. L. Raymond and A. T. Tu, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 285, 498 (1972).Google Scholar
- 19.A. T. Tu and B. S. Hong, J. Biol. Chem., 246, 2772 (1971).Google Scholar