Surgical Techniques in Cardiac Pacing

  • Claude Meere
  • Jacques Lespérance
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 3)


Since the first implantation of a cardiac pacemaker in 1958, the pacing systems have changed continuously. These changes have influenced the surgical techniques. With the development of the transvenous stimulating catheter, the transthoracic implantation of the electrode has decreased to under ten per cent of the overall implantations. New transvenous electrodes have changed the implantation site and in temporary pacing also the procedure.


Coronary Sinus Subclavian Vein Cephalic Vein Cardiac Pace Cardiac Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zoll M: Resuscitation of the heart in ventricular standstill by external electrical stimulation. N Engl J Med 241: 768, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chung EK: Indications of temporary pacing. In: Artificial cardiac pacing — practical approach, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1978, pp. 161–172.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pirzada FA, Venkataraman K, Madias JE, Hood WB JR: Prophylactic preoperative pacing. In: To pace or not to pace, Thalen HJTh, Harthorne JW (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff Medical Division, The Hague/Boston/London, 1978, pp. 82–90.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moosman DA: The anatomy of infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization and its complications. Surg Gyn Obs 136: 71–74, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lillehei CW, Levy MJ, Bonnabeau RC, Long DM, Sellers RD: The use of a myocardial electrode and pacemaker in a management of acute postoperative and postinfarction heart block. Surgery 56: 463, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reemtsma K, Delgado JP, and Creech O Jr.: Heart block following intra-cardiac surgery: Localization of conduction tissue injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 39: 688–693, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sowton E, Leatham A, Carson P: The suppression of arrhythmias by artificial pacemaking. Lancet 2: 1098, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furman S: Therapeutic uses of atrial pacing. Am Heart J, 86: 835, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brockman SK: Dynamic function of atrial contraction in regulation of cardiac performance. Am J Physiol, 204: 597, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roth F, Salzmann C, Gurtner HP: Elektrische Stimulation des Herzens liber eine Oesophagus- elektrode. Schweiz Med Wschr 99: 1661, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burack B, Furman S: Transoesophageal cardiac pacing. Amer J Cardiol 23: 469, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Furman S, Robinson G: The use of an intracardiac pacemaker in the correction of total heart block. Surg Forum 9, 1958.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Littleford PO, Spector SD: Device for the rapid insertion of a permanent endocardial pacing electrode through the subclavian vein: preliminary report. Ann Thorac Surg 27: 265, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moss AJ, Rivers RJ, Cooper M: Long-term pervenous atrial pacing from the proximal portion of the coronary vein. JAMA, 209: 543, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lagergren H, Johansson L, Karlof I, Thornander H: Atrial-triggered pacemaking without thoracotomy: apparatus and results in twenty cases. Acta Chir Scand, 132: 678, 1966.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nathan DA, Center S, Wu CY, Keller W: An implantable synchronous pacemaker for the long-term correction of complete heart block. Am J Cardiol 11: 362, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chardack WM, Gage AA, Greatbatch W: Correction of complete heart block by a self- contained and subcutaneously implanted pacemaker. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 42: 814, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tyers GFO, Hughes HC, Torman HA, Waldhausen JA: The advantages of transthoracic placement of permanent cardiac pacemaker electrodes. J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 69: 8, 1975.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hunter SW, Bolduc, Long L, Sister Victorine, Quattlebaum FW: A new myocardial pacemaker lead (sutureless). Chest 63: 430, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mobin-Uddin K, Smith PE, Lombardo C, Jude JR: Local anesthesia for insertion of epicardial electrodes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 55: 112, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cammilli L, Pozzi R, Pizzichi G: Radio-Frequency pacemaker with receiver coil implanted on the heart. In: Cardiac Pacemakers, Glenn WWL, Ann N Y Acad Sc 3: 1007–1029, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hirsch HH, Scior H, Zipf KE: Über die Pericardiotomia inferior longitudinalis (Sauerbruch) als Zugang zum Herzen für die Schrittmacher-implantation bei Morgagni-Adams-Stokes- Syndrom. Beitr Klin Chir 208: 446, 1964.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parsonnet V, Lawrence G, Zucher IR, Assefi I, Millburn NJ: Subcostal transdiaphragmatic insertion of a cardiac pacemaker. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 49: 739, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buffle P: Ventricular pacing with epigastric trans-diaphragmatic electrodes: Long-term follow- up and comparison with other implantation methods. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 72: 226, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steinke W, Thomas F, Hassan Z, Mendoza R, Gear A: Subepicardial infarction, myocardial impression and ventricular penetration by sutureless electrode and leads. Chest 70: 80, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brenner AS, Wagner GS, Anderson ST, Rosati RA, Morris JJ Jr: Transvenous, transmediastinal, and transthoracic ventricular pacing: A comparison after complete two-year follow-up. Circulation 49: 407, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dreifus LS, Cohen D: Implanted pacemakers: Medico-legal implications. Am J Cardiol 36: 266, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers bv, The Hague 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claude Meere
  • Jacques Lespérance

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations