Microcapsule Artificial Kidney in Replacement of Renal Function: With Emphasis on Adsorbent Hemoperfusion

  • Thomas Ming Swi Chang


Attempts to extend, modify and improve hemodialyzers and hemodialysis treatment include improvements in membrane properties, total active membrane area, dialysis solution delivery, dialysate regeneration, blood access and others. These improvements have been carried to such perfection that further major technological advances in the treatment of chronic renal failure may have to depend on other, novel principles.


Activate Charcoal Hepatic Coma Chronic Renal Failure Patient Artificial Cell Middle Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chang TMS: Report of research project for BSc Honours Physiology, Montreal, McGill University, 1957Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang TMS: Semipermeable microcapsules. Science 146: 524, 1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang TMS: Artificial Cells. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1972Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chang TMS: Semipermeable aqueous microcapsules (artificial cells) with emphasis on experiments in an extracorporeal shunt system. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 12: 13, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang TMS: Removal of endogenous and exogenous toxins by a microencapsulated adsorbent. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 47: 1043, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang TMS, Malave N: The development and clinical use of semipermeable microcapsules (artificial cells) formed by membrane-coated activated charcoal. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 16: 141, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang TMS, Gonda A, Dirks J, Malave N: Clinical evaluation of chronic intermittent or short term hemoperfusion in patients with chronic renal failure using semipermeable microcapsules (artificial cells) formed from membrane-coated activated charcoal. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 17: 246, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chang TMS, Coffey JF, Barre P, Gonda A, Dirks JH, Levy M, Lister C: Microcapsule artificial kidney: Treatment of patients with acute drug intoxication. Can Med Assoc J 108: 429, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang TMS: Hemoperfusion over microencapsulated adsorbent in a patient with hepatic coma. Lancet 2: 1371, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yatzidis D: A convenient hemoperfusion micro-apparatus over charcoal for the treatment of endogenous and exogenous intoxications. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 1: 83, 1964Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dunea G, Kolff WJ: Clinical experiments with the Yatzidis charcoal artificial kidney. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 11: 178, 1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hagstam KE, Larsson LE, Thysell H: Experimental studies on charcoal hemoperfusion in phenobarbital intoxication and uremia including histological findings. Acta Med Scand 180: 593, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Demyttenaere MH, Maher JF, Schreiner GE: Hemoperfusion through a charcoal column for glutethimide poisoning. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 13: 190, 1967Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Odaka M, Kobajash H, Tabata Y, Soma M: Three hour maintenance dialysis combined with direct hemoperfusion and hemodialysis. Kidney Int (Abstract) 10: 197, 1976Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andrade JD, Van Wagenen R, Ghavamian M, Voider J, Kirkham R, Kolff WJ: Coated adsorbents for direct blood perfusion, II. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18: 235, 1972Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Winchester JF, Apiliga MT, Kennedy AC: Combined hemodialysis-charcoal hemoperfusion in the dialysis patient. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S315, 1976Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gazzard BG, Weston MJ, Murray-Lyon IM, Flax H, Record CO, Portman B, Langley PG, Dunlop EH, Mellon PJ, Ward, MD, Williams R: Charcoal hemoperfusion in the treatment of fulminating hepatic failure. Lancet 1: 1301, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vale JA, Rees AJ, Widdop B, Goulding R: The use of charcoal hemoperfusion in the maintenance of severely poisoned patients. Br Med J 1: 5, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thysell H, Lindhom D, Meinegard N, Jonsson E, Nylem U, Suensson T, Berjkirst G, Gullberg GA: A hemoperfusion column using cellophane coated charcoal. Proc Eur Soc Artif Organs 2: 146, 1975Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martin AM, Gibbine JK, Jonsson E, Trinder P: The development of the Gambro carbon hemoperfusion column in Artificial Organs, edited by Gilchrist T, London, MacMillan, 1977Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dunea G, Risvi ZH, Mamdami BH, Anicama HJ, Mahurkar SD: Charcoal hemoperfusion and combination dialysis-hemoperfusion in chronic renal failure Am Soc Artif Intern Organs (Abstract) 5: 22, 1976Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilchrist T, Jonsson E, Martin AM, Nancler C, Cameron A, Courtney JM: Development of the Strathclyde hemoperfusion system, in Artificial Liver Support, edited by Williams R, London, Pittman Medical, 1974, p 319Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rosenbaum JL, Kramer MS, Raja R, Winsten S, Dalai F: Hemoperfusion for acute drug intoxication. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S341, 1976Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Davis TA: Activated carbon fibers in hemoperfusion devices. Kidney Int 7 (Suppl): S406, 1975Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nosé Y, Malchesky PS, Castino F, Koshino I, Scheuscher K, Nokoff R: Improved hemoperfusion systems for renal-hepatic support. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S244, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang, TMS: Microcapsule artificial kidney, including updated preparative procedures and properties. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S218, 1976Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fennimore J, Kolthammen JC, Lang SM: Evaluation of hemoperfusion systems: in-vitro methods related to performance and safety. In Artificial Organs, edited by Gilchrist T, London, MacMillan 1977Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hill JB, Palaia FL, McAdams J, Palmer PJ, Skinner, JT, Maret SM: The rationale for fixed-bed charcoal in hemoperfusion. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S328, 1976Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van Wagenen R, Coleman DL, Andrade JD: Adsorbent hemoperfusion: Nonbiological particulate matter. Kidney Int 7 (suppl): S397, 1975Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oka K, Ohta T, Kobayashi M, Yoshida S, Kaneko I, Agishi T, Sugihara M: Petroleum based activated charcoal for direct hemoperfusion. Kidney Int (Abstract) 10: 197, 1976Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chang TMS, Gonda A, Coffey J, Dirks J, Burns T: ACAC microcapsule artificial kidney for long term and short term management of patients with chronic renal failure. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 18: 465, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chang TMS, Migchelsen M: The characterization of possible “toxic” metabolites in uremia and hepatic coma based on the clearance spectrum for larger molecules by the ACAC microcapsule artificial kidney. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 19: 314, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chang TMS, Migchelsen M, Coffey JF, Stark K: Serum middle molecules levels in uremia during long-term intermittent hemoperfusion with the ACAC (coated charcoal) microcapsule artificial kidney. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 20: 364, 1974Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chang TMS, Chirito E, Barre P, Cole C, Hewish M: Clinical performance characteristics of a new combined system for simultaneous hemoperfusion-hemodialysis-ultrafiltration in series. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 21: 502, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang TMS: Microencapsulated hemoperfusion for uremia, intoxication, and hepatic failure. Kidney Int 7 (Suppl): S387, 1975Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chang TMS: Hemoperfusion alone and in series with ultrafiltration or dialysis for uremia, poisoning, and liver failure. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S305, 1976Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chang TMS, Chirito E, Barre P, Cole C, Lister C, Resurrección E: Clinical evaluation of the clearance profiles of a portable, compact, dialysate-free system incorporating microencapsulated charcoal hemoperfusion for blood purification with ultrafiltration for fluid removal. J Dialysis 1: 239, 1977Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chang TMS, Coffey JF, Lister C, Stark R, Taroy E: The clearance of the ACAC microcapsule artificial kidney for glutethimide, methyprylon, and methaqualone: In-vitro and in patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 19: 87, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Winchester JF, Apiliga MT, MacKay JM, Kennedy AC: Haemodialysis with charcoal haemoperfusion. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 12: 526, 1975Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yatzidis H, Yulis G, Digenis P: Hemocarbonperfusion-hemodialysis treatment in terminal renal failure. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S312, 1976Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gouíding R: Experience with hemoperfusion. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S338, 1976Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barbour BH, LaSette AM, Koffler A: Fixed-bed charcoal hemoperfusion for the treatment gf drug overdose. Kidney Int 10 (Suppl): S333, 1976Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Blume V, Helstaedt D, Sybrecht G, Baldamus C, Sussman P, Heyer V, Schmidt E, Schmidt E: Hämoperfusions therapie des akuten Leberversagens. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 14: 559, 1976Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Campbell J, Chang TMS: Enzymatic recycling of coenzymes by a multi-enzyme system immobilized within semipermeable collodion microcapsules. Biochim Biophys Acta 397: 101, 1975Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cousineau J, Chang TMS: Removal of urea and ammonia by conversion to amino acid using a microencapsulated multi-enzyme system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 79: 24, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Biomedical Applications of Immobilized Enzymes and Proteins, edited by Chang TMS, New York NY, Plenum Publisher, 1977Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Artificial Kidney, Artificial Liver and Artificial Cells, edited by Chang TMS, New York, NY, Plenum Publisher 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers bv, The Hague 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Ming Swi Chang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations