Energy and Mass Injected by Flares and Eruptive Prominences

  • O. Engvold
Part of the International Astronomical Union / Union Astronomique Internationale book series (IAUS, volume 91)

Abstract

The dynamic nature of the outer corona has been revealed in recent years by improved techniques of studying the corona with ground based instruments and from space. Rapid changes in the coronal brightness pattern takes the form of mass ejections in which the outward moving material generally appears to escape the Sun. These events are called coronal transients. Observations have shown that the excess mass and energy in coronal transients are supplied by material expelled from the chromosphere and lower corona in conjunction with Ha surface activity. The transients are the coronal response to release of mass and energy which are manifested by flares and eruptive prominences.

Keywords

Flare Boulder Prep 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Becker, U.: 1958, Z. f. Astrophys. 44, pp. 243–248.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Brueckner, G, E.: 1972, “Conference on Flare-Produced Shock Waves…”, HAO/NCAR, Boulder, Sept. 11–14.Google Scholar
  3. Bruzek, A.: 1951, Z.f. Astrophys. 28, pp. 277–295.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruzek, A.: 1964, Astrophys. J. 140, pp. 746.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruzek, A.: 1969, “Solar Flares and Space Research”,ed. C. de Jager and Z. Svestka, pp. 61.Google Scholar
  6. Cheng, C.:1978, Solar Phys. 56, pp. 205.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. d’Azambuja, L. and M.: 1948, Ann. Obs. Paris, Meudon, 6, fasc. 7, 1.Google Scholar
  8. Dulk, G. A., and Altschuler, M.: 1971, Solar Phys. 20, pp. 438.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Engvold, O.: 1980, Inst. Theoret. Astrophys. Report (in prep.)Google Scholar
  10. Engvold, O. and Rustad, B. M.: 1974, Solar Phys. 35, pp. 409.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Engvold, O., Malville, J. M., and Rustad, B. M.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 137.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Gosling, J. T., Hildner, E., MacQueen, R. M., Munro, R. H., Poland, A. I., and Ross, C. L.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 389.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Hildner, E.: 1977, Astrophys. and Space Sci. Library 71.Google Scholar
  14. Hildner, E., Gosling, J. T., MacQueen, R. M., Munro. R. H., Poland, A. I., and Ross, C. L.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 127.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirayama, T.: 1978, IAU Coll. No. 44, pp. 4.Google Scholar
  16. Hyder, C.: 1967, Solar Phys. 2, pp. 49.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Koeckelenbergh, A. and Peeters, J.: 1957, Com. 1’Obs. Roy. Belg. 147.Google Scholar
  18. Kopp, R.A., and Pneuman, G. W.: 1976, Solar Phys. 50, pp. 85.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Kosugi, T.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 339.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Martin, S. F.:1978, IAU Coll. No. 44, pp.268.Google Scholar
  21. Martres, M.-J., and Zlicaric, G.: 1977, Cartes Synoptiques de la Chromosphere et Catalogues des Filaments et des Centres d’Activité, Obs. de Paris, VI, fasc. 2.Google Scholar
  22. McCabe, M. K.: 1971, Solar Phys. 19, pp. 451.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. McCabe, M. K., and Fisher, R. R.: 1970, Solar Phys. 14, pp. 212.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Menzel, D. H., Smith, E. v. P., deMastus, H., Ramsey, H., Schnable, G., and Lawrence, R.: 1956, Astron. J. 61, pp. 186.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Munro, R. H., Gosling, J. T., Hildner, E., MacQueen, R. M., Poland, A. I., and Ross, C. L.: 1979, Solar Phys, 61, 201.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Pettit, E.: 1925, Publ. Yerkes Obs. 3, pp. 205.Google Scholar
  27. Pettit, E.: 1940, Publ. Astr. Soc. Pacific 52, pp. 172.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Pittini, A.: 1979, Astr. Mitt. Eidgen. Zürich No. 373.Google Scholar
  29. Platov, Yu. V.: 1973, Solar Phys. 28, pp. 477.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Riddle, A., Tandberg-Hanssen, E., and Hansen, R. T.: 1974, Solar Phys. 35, pp. 171.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Roy, J.-R.: 1973, Solar Phys. 28, pp. 95.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Rust, D. M., and Hildner, E.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 381.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Rust, D. M., and Svestka, Z.: 1978, IAU Coll. No. 44, pp. 276.Google Scholar
  34. Rust, D. M., Hildner, E., Dryer, M., Hanssen, R. T., McClymont, A. N., McKenna Lawlor, S. M. P., McLean, D. J., Schmahl, E. J., Steinolfson, R. S., Tandberg-Hanssen, E., Tousey, R., Webb, D. F., and Wu, S. T.: 1979, Proceedings of the Skylab Workshop on Solar Flares, Chapt. 7, ed. P. A. Sturrock.Google Scholar
  35. Sakurai, T.: 1976, Publ. Astr .Soc. Japan 28, pp. 177.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmahl, E. J.: 1978, Solar Phys. (submitted)Google Scholar
  37. Schmahl, E. J., and Hildner, E.: 1977, Solar Phys. 55, pp. 473.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Scheridan, K.V.: 1979, Paper presented at present Symposium.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, E. v. P.: 1968, Nobel Symposium No. 9, ed. Y.Öhman, pp. 137Google Scholar
  40. Smith, H. J., and Booton, W. D.: 1962, GRD, Res. Note No. 58, AFCRLGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith, J.B., Jr., Speich, D. M., Wilson, R. M, Tandberg-Hanssen, E. and Wu, S.T.: 1977, Solar Phys. 52, pp. 379.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith, S. F., and Harvey, K. L.: 1971, Physics of the Solar Corona, ed. J. Maoris, pp. 156.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, S. F., and Ramsey, H. E.: 1964, Z. f. Astrophys. 60, pp. 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Stewart, R. T., Hansen, R. T., and Scheridan, K. V.: 1978, IAU Coll. No. 44, pp. 315.Google Scholar
  45. Švestka, Z.: 1976, Solar Flares, D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  46. Tandberg-Hanssen, E.: 1974, Solar Prominences, D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  47. Tandberg-Hanssen, E., and Malville, J. M.: 1974, Solar Phys. 39, pp. 107.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Tandberg-Hanssen, E., Martin, S. F., and Hansen, R. T.: 1980, Solar Phys. 65, 357.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Valnicěk,B.:1962, Bull. Astr. Inst. Czech. 13, pp. 91.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Valnicěk,B.: 1964, ibid 15, pp. 207.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Waldmeier, M.:1939, Z. f. Astrophys. 18, pp. 241.MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Waldmeier, M.: 1958, ibid 44, pp. 213.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Waldmeier, M.: 1978, Astr. Mitt. Eidgen. Zürich No. 358.Google Scholar
  54. Waldmeier, M.: 1979, ibid No. 371.Google Scholar
  55. Warwick, J. W.: 1957, Astrophys. J. 125, pp. 811.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Webb, D. F., Krieger, A.S., and Rust, D. M.: 1976, Solar Phys. 48, pp. 159.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Webb, D. F., Cheng, C. C., Dulk, G. A., Edberg, S. J., Martin, S. F., McKenna-Lawlor, S., and McLean, D. J.: 1979, Proceedings of the Skylab Workshop on Solar Flares, Appendix B, ed. P. A. Sturrock.Google Scholar
  58. Westin, H.: 1969, Solar Phys. 7, pp. 393.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Westin, H., and Lizska, L.: 1970, Solar Phys. 11, pp. 409.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Uchida, Y., Altschuler, M. D., and Newkirk Jr., G.: 1973, Solar Phys. 28, pp. 495.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Zirker, J. B.:1976, IAU Coll. no. 36, pp. 421.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IAU 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Engvold
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Theoretical AstrophysicsUniversity of OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations