Planning in the Making
Planning is a social process; an analysis of this process must therefore be complex rather than uni-dimensional, integrated rather than discrete. The analysis must be based on a number of interconnected components which will reflect the mutual causality and dynamic nature of the social process, so that a reliable picture may emerge. However, the very nature of verbal presentation prevents an analysis directly reflecting the simultaneous nature of planning. Any analysis implies some notion of hierarchy which does not reflect an interactive process1. This is a basic constraint to planning analysis. We will therefore analyze dynamic processes rather than static components.
KeywordsCrystallization Mold Arena Tempo Venezuela
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- 9.See the distinction between perceived objective and subjective standards in Jean Forbes, ed., Studies in Social Sciences and Planning, Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, 1974, pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
- 18.This phenomenon was described by Benjamin Akzin and Yehezkel Dror, in Israel, High-Pressure Planning, n. 7, pp. 37–38.Google Scholar
- 27.On the link between prediction choice and values, see C. West Churchman, Prediction and Optimal Decisions, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1961, chaps. 4–6.Google Scholar
- 29.An approach adopted, for example, in Alfred J. Kahn, Theory and Practice of Social Planning, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1969, p. 296.Google Scholar