Advertisement

Abstract

The recent expansion in the production of manufactured fatty foods, such as margarine and shortening, had led to the need for cheaper and indigenous sources of food oils. Rapeseed oil, also known as colza oil, has consequently become an important commodity in northern countries because rape, a member of the Brassica family, grows particularly well in temperate climates.

Evidence in the last thirty years has shown that rapeseed oil causes growth retardation and pathogenic changes to internal organs when fed at high concentrations to laboratory animals. These effects were proved to be due to the high levels of erucic acid (cis-13-docosenoic acid) in the rapeseed oil triglycerides. Following the successful Canadian development of rape cultivars yielding oils with very low levels of erucic acid, it became possible for the European Economic Community and a number of countries to introduce legislation controlling the level of erucic acid in oils, fats and fatty foods.

To enforce the EEC legislation, it was necessary to find methods of analysis for the determination of erucic acid in products which may contain different isomers and docosenoic acid derived from other oils and fats.

This paper will describe the chromatographic procedures which have been applied to this problem. Particular emphasis will be placed on the technique developed at the Laboratory of the Government Chemist which forms the basis of a draft official EEC method.

Keywords

Erucic Acid Erucic Acid Content Sorting Test Docosenoic Acid Phenacyl Ester 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    FAO (1971). Agricultural Commodity Projections, 1970–1980. 1(1), FAO, Rome, 329.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carroll, K. K. (1951). Endocrinology, 48, 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carroll, K. K. and Noble, R. L. (1952). Endocrinology, 51, 476–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carroll, K. K. (1953). J. Biol. Chem., 200, 287–292.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beare-Rogers, J. L. (1977). Prog. Chem. Fats Other Lipids, 15, 29–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    FAO (1977). In: Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Role of Dietary Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 3. Rome, 46–62.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Downey, R. K. (1976). Chem. Ind. (London), Chem. Ind. (London)401–406.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Downey, R. K. (1964). Can. J. Plant Sci., 44, 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    EEC (1976). Off. J. Eur. Communities, L202 (28 July), Council Directive 76/621/EEC, 35.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    HMSO. (1977) The Erucic Acid in Food Regulations. SI691. HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    IUPAC (1978). In: Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Soaps, 5th Edition, 4th Supplement. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Method II.D.25.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    EEC (1977). Commission Regulation (EEC) No. 72/77. Off. J. Eur. Communities, L12 (15 January), 1977, 11–24.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Conacher, H. B. S. (1975). J. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem., 58(3), 488–491.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ackmann, R. G. (1966). J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc, 43, 483–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ackmann, R. G., Eaton, C. A. and Sipos, J. C. (1975). Recent Advances in the Gas-Liquid Chromatography of Docosenoic (22:1) Fatty Acids of Marine and Rapeseed Oils. Technical Report No. 577. Environment Canada, Fisheries and Marine Service.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barlow, S. M., Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ackmann, R. G., Barlow, S. M. and Duthie, I. F. (1977). J. Chromatog. Sci., 15, 290–295.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morris, L. J. (1966). J. Lipid Res., 7, 717.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bradford, B. W., Harvey, D. E. and Chalkley, D. E. (1955). J. Inst. Petrol, 41, 80.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goering, H. L., Closson, W. D. and Olson, A. C. (1961). J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 83, 3507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morris, L. J. (1962). Chem. Ind. (London), 1238.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DE Vries, B. (1962). Chem. Ind. (London), 1049.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morris, L. J., Wharry, D. M. and Hammond, E. W. (1967). J. Chromatog., 31, 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kirk, R. S., Mortlock, R. E., Pocklington, W. D. and Roper, P. (1978). J. Sci. Fd. Agric, 29, 880–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Durst, H. D., Milano, M., Kikta, E. J., Connelly, S. A. and Grushka, E. (1975). Anal. Chem., 47, 1797–1801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flanders, A., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borch, R. F. (1975). Anal. Chem., 47, 2437–2439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jackson, P. A. Unpublished work.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chan, H. W-S. and Levett, G. (1978). Chem. Ind. (London), Chem. Ind. (London)578–579.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vonach, B. and Schomburg, G. (1978). J. Chromatog., 149, 417–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Applied Science Publishers Ltd 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Kirk
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of the Government ChemistLondonUK

Personalised recommendations