Characterizing the C-Wave of the Electroretinogram

  • Michael F. Marmor
  • Mark Lurie
Conference paper
Part of the Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series book series (DOPS, volume 25)


The c-wave of the electroretinogram is a slow cornea-positive response which must be recorded by d.с. -amplification. It is generated in part by the pigment epithelium but also by the Müller cells and inner retina. The amplitude and waveform of the c-wave are quite variable which complicates its definition for clinical use. Both c-wave amplitude and time-to-peak increase with stimulus energy, and the c-wave can integrate stimulus energy over several seconds. For every light intensity there is a critical duration beyond which integration no longer takes place. If the c-wave is to be used as a clinical measure of pigment epithelial function, the techniques for human recording must be improved, and recording protocols must be devised which selectively emphasize the pigment epithelial components of the response.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Stimulus Intensity Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Critical Duration Veteran Administration Medical 
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Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers, The Hague 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael F. Marmor
    • 1
  • Mark Lurie
    • 1
  1. 1.Ophthalmology Section (112B1)Veterans Administration Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA

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