Chemical control

  • John Feltwell
Part of the Series Entomologica book series (SENT, volume 18)


The chemical methods used for control of Pieris brassicae differ only slightly from those methods used on many other phytophagous insect pests and in fact they reflect the history of pesticide usage on insects. P. brassicae has always been widely available as a test insect and numerous insecticides have been tested on this species. In fact most work refers to the screening of insecticides in the laboratory and there is probably much that could be done in the field with compounds which have shown good results in the laboratory.


Juvenile Hormone Emulsifiable Concentrate Insect Growth Regulator Insecticidal Property Organophosphorus Insecticide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Alkmaar Report, 1972. Insektenbestriydiff in sprintkool. Bericht No. 1824.Google Scholar
  2. Alkmaar Report 1974. Growing of cauliflower. Bericht No. 10., 2,4,8,9,11,15.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous, 1969a. Agreport pests and diseases 38.1. Cabbage, Brassica oleracea. Agr. vet. chem. 10: 13–14.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous, 1969b. Schädigen bewirkt bei der fressenden Raupen. Prakt. Schädlbekärnpf. 21: 113–114.Google Scholar
  5. Arkhangelski, P., 1925a. Note on Pieris brassicae. Defense des Plantes 1: 239.Google Scholar
  6. Arkhangelski, P., 1925b. Control of cabbage worms. (In Russian.) Reg. Plant Prot. Stn. N. Caucasus B. 1–7.Google Scholar
  7. Atwal, A.S. & Pajni, H.R., 1964. Preliminary studies on the insecticidal properties of drupes of Melia azedarach against caterpillars of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Indian J. Ent. 26: 221–227.Google Scholar
  8. Avidov, Z. & Harpaz, I., 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Israel University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, S.H., 1949. Preliminary experiments with systemic insecticides. Ann. appl. Biol. 36: 160–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, S.H. & Martin, H., 1948. Qualitative examination of insecticidal properties. Progress Report, 1947. Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn. Bristol 1947: 147–156.Google Scholar
  11. Benz, G., 1970. Stimulation of oogenesis in Pieris brassicae by the juvenile hormone derivative farnesenic acid ethyl ether. Experimentia 26: 1012.Google Scholar
  12. Benz, G., 1971. Failure to demonstrate sterilans effect of juvenile hormone mimetics in Pieris brassicae and Galleria mellonella. Experimentia 27: 581–582.Google Scholar
  13. Benz, G., 1973. Reversal of spinning behaviour in last instar larvae of Pieris brassicae treated with juvenile hormone derivatives. Experimentia 29: 1437–1438.Google Scholar
  14. Benz, G., 1974. Homoeotic transdetermination caused by juvenoid in larvae of Pieris brassicae L. Experimentia 30: 1264–1265.Google Scholar
  15. Berkovitch, I., 1972. Seeking pest solutions at Silwood Park. Int. pest Control 14: 24–25.Google Scholar
  16. Blanchard, E., 1917. Dégâts causés par les chenilles du chou dans le department de la Loire et regions avoisantes. Vie agric. Rur. Paris 7: 419–420.Google Scholar
  17. Blanchard, E., 1921. Contre la piéride du chou. Vie agric. Rur. Paris 19: 26–27.Google Scholar
  18. Blazejewska, A., 1964. The effect of tritox dust on the alimentary canal of larvae of the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae. (In Polish.) Polskie Pismo Ent. B. 1964: 25–34.Google Scholar
  19. Brouwer, W.M.T.J. de, 1970. Protection of brussels sprouts against insects. Gewasberbeschherming 1: 104–110.Google Scholar
  20. Buckhurst, A.A., 1947. White butterflies. Amat. Gard. 64: 17.Google Scholar
  21. Butterworth, J.H. & Morgan, E.D., 1971. Investigation of the locust feeding inhibition of the seeds of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica. J. Insect Physiol. 17: 969–977.Google Scholar
  22. Champ, B.R., 1958. The effect of sub-lethal dosages of insecticides on parasitism in Pieris brassicae. Ph.D. thesis, University of London (Imperial College).Google Scholar
  23. Clark, A.G., Cropp, P.L., Smith, J.N., Speir, T.W. & Tan, B.J., 1976. Photometric determination of methyl parathion GSH S-methyl transferase. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 6: 126–131.Google Scholar
  24. Corbett, J.R., 1974. The biochemical mode of action of pesticides. Academic Press. New York & London.Google Scholar
  25. Cottier, W., 1936. The use of insecticides in the control of the white butterfly. N.Z. J. agric. 52: 24–29.Google Scholar
  26. Daalen, J.J. van, Meltzer, J., Mulder, R. & Wellinga, K., 1972. Ein auswählendes Schädlingsbekämpfungsmittel mit einer neuartigen Form der Wirkung. Naturwissenschaften 59: 312–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. D’Arenberg, P., 1913. A possible method of preventing the attack of Pieris brassicae on cabbages. Bull. Soc. nat. acclimat. 1913: 18.Google Scholar
  28. David, W.A.L., 1959. The systematic insecticidal action of paraoxon on the eggs of Pieris brassicae (L.). J. Insect Physiol. 3: 14–27.Google Scholar
  29. David, W.A.L. & Aldridge, W.N., 1957. Insecticidal material in leaves of plants growing in soil treated with Parathion. Ann. appl. Biol. 45: 332–346.Google Scholar
  30. David, W.A.L. & Gardiner, B.O.C., 1953a. Systemic insecticidal action of nicotine and certain other organic bases. Ann. appl. Biol. 40: 91–105.Google Scholar
  31. David, W.A.L. & Gardiner, B.O.C., 1953b. The systemic insecticidal action of sodium fluoacetate and of three phosporous compounds on the eggs and larvae of Pieris brassicae L. Ann. appl. Biol. 40: 403–417.Google Scholar
  32. David, W.A.L. & Gardiner, B.O.C., 1954. The action of the systemic insecticide systox on Pieris brassicae L. and Phaedon cochleariae F. Bull. ent. Res. 45: 693–702.Google Scholar
  33. David, W.A.L. & Gardiner, B.O.C., 1959. The action of the systemic insecticide fluoroacetamide on certain aphids and on Pieris brassicae (L.). Bull. ent. Res. 50: 25–38.Google Scholar
  34. David, W.A.L., Gardiner, B.O.C., Chapman, C. & Phillips, M.A.M., 1958. Fluoroacetamide as a systemic insecticide. Nature, Lond. 181: 1810–1811.Google Scholar
  35. David, W.A.L., Metcalf, R.L. & Winton, M., 1960. The systemic insecticidal properties of certain carbamates. J. econ. Ent. 53: 1021–1025.Google Scholar
  36. Del Rivero, J.M., Tuset, J.J., Roig, F.J. & Lafuente, M., 1969a. La eficacia de varios insecticidas, solos o combinados contre las orugas de Pieris brassicae. An. Inst. nac. invest. Agron. 18: 145–155.Google Scholar
  37. Del Rivero, J.M., Tuset, J.J., Roig, F.J., Miquel, E. & Lafuente, M., 1969a. La eficacia de varios insecticidas contra Pieris brassicae y pruebas de fitotoxicidad en el campo. Boln. Patol. veg. ent. Agric. 31: 85–91.Google Scholar
  38. Deshmukh, S.N. & Adarsh, H.S., 1971. Comparative toxicity of some common formulations of common insecticides to caterpillars of Pieris brassicae (Cabbage butterfly). J. Res. Punjab agric. Univ. 8: 339–342.Google Scholar
  39. Eckstein, K., 1920. Zur Bekämpfung der Kohlweisslinge. Naturwissenschaften 18: 234–235.Google Scholar
  40. Fabre, J.H., 1912. The Life of the Caterpillar. Translated by A.T. de Mattos. Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  41. Felton, J.C., 1968. Insecticidal activity of some oxime carbamates. J. Sci. Fd. agric. Suppl. 19: 32–37.Google Scholar
  42. Ferdinansen, C., Lind, J. & Rostrup, S., 1919. Report of insect pests and diseases of orchards in 1916–1917. Tijdschr. Planteavl. Copenhagen 26: 297–334.Google Scholar
  43. Feytaud, J., 1918. Note sur la pièride du chou. Bull. Soc. étude vulg. zool. agric. Bordeaux 17: 33–38.Google Scholar
  44. Feytaud, J., 1924. La pyrèthre. Rev. zool. agric. appl. 23: 238–243.Google Scholar
  45. Finlayson, D.G., Campbell, C.J., Roberts, H.A. & Vancouver, B.C., 1975. Herbicides and insecticides: their compatibility and effects on weeds, insects and earthworms in the minicauliflower crop. Ann. appl. Biol. 79: 95–108.Google Scholar
  46. Frey, W., 1950. The use of newer contact insecticides for the control of larvae of the cabbage white butterfly. NachrBl. dt. PflschutzDienst. Braunschw. 2: 168–170.Google Scholar
  47. Fulmek, L., 1929. Giftigkeitsunterschiede gebräuchlicher Arsenmittel. Fortschr. Landw. Vienna 4: 209–212.Google Scholar
  48. Gautier, C., 1918. Physiological and parasitological studies on injurious lepidoptera: on some facts relating to Pierid larvae. C. r. Soc. Biol. Paris 81: 197–199, 801–803.Google Scholar
  49. Godan, D., 1949. Massenauftreten von Kohlweisslingsraupen (Pieris brassicae) in Berlin. Biol. Zentanst. 1: 165–166.Google Scholar
  50. Gorianov, A., 1916. Experiments with some vegetable and mineral insecticides. (In Russian.) Protection of Plants from Pests, supplement to Friend of Nature, Petrograd 1916: 1–28.Google Scholar
  51. Herfs, W. & Krieg, A., 1963. Studies for assessing the efficiency of commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner for the control of the cabbage white butterfly, (Pieris brassicae L.). NachrBl. dt. Pflschutz Dienst. Braunschw. 15: 49–54.Google Scholar
  52. Isachenko, V.B. & Goritzkaya, O.V., 1931. Some data of toxicological analysis of the pyrethrum. (In Russian.) Bull. Plant. Prot. Leningrad 3: 165–174.Google Scholar
  53. Jentink, F.A., 1913. Hemp as a deterrent of Pieris brassicae. Review of Applied Entomology A: 191. Cited in Review of Applied Entomology as letter to D’Arenberg.Google Scholar
  54. Korolkov, D.M., 1914. Insects injurious to orchards and market-gardens and remedies against them. (In Russian.) Orchard & Market Garden, Moscow (5) 235–241.Google Scholar
  55. Levchenko, E.I., Bolotryi, A.V. & Yurkova, E.F., 1974. Gardona. Zashch. Rast. (8) 43–44.Google Scholar
  56. Linsbauer, L., 1919. Zur Bekämpfung der Kohlweisslinge. Naturwissenschaften 17: 147–149.Google Scholar
  57. Lundgren, L., 1975. Natural plant chemicals acting as oviposition deterrents on cabbage butterflies (Pieris brassicae, Pieris rapae, Pieris napi). Zool. Scr. 4: 253–258.Google Scholar
  58. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food (MAFF), 1976. Cabbage caterpillars. Advisory leaflet No. 29. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  59. Marchai, P. & Foex, E., 1918. Rapport phytopathologique pour les années 1916 et 1917. Ann. Épiphyt. 5: 1–35.Google Scholar
  60. Marchai, P. & Foex, E., 1920. Rapport phytopathologique pour les arnées 1919 et 1920. Ann. Épiphyt. 7: 1–87.Google Scholar
  61. Mardzhanyan, G.M., 1941. Question of the toxic characters of different Pyrethrum species (in Russian). Proc. Lenin Acad. Agri. Sci. U.S.S.R. 6: 26–29.Google Scholar
  62. Martin, H., Stringer, A. & Wain, R.L., 1943. Qualitative examination of insecticidal properties. Progress Report. Rept. agric. Res. Stn. Bristol 1943: 62–76.Google Scholar
  63. Martin, H. & Wain, R.L., 1945. Qualitative examination of insecticidal properties. Progress Report. Rept. agric. Res. Stn. Bristol 1944: 121–140.Google Scholar
  64. Martin, H. & Worthing, C.R., 1977. Pesticide Manual (5th edition). British Crop Protection Council.Google Scholar
  65. Meltzerm, J. & Welle, H.B.A., 1969. Insecticidal activity of substituted Phenyl N-Methylcarbamates. Entomologia expl. appl. 12: 169–182.Google Scholar
  66. Moiseeva, N.V., Mashkina, L.G., Kalashnikova, G.I. & Ratomskaya, A.A., 1975. The effectiveness of the use of Trichogramma for control of certain cabbage pests in the Chu Valley, Kirgizia. In: Arthropods of Agricultural Importance. Ed. Protsenko, A.I. Ent. Issled. Kirgizia Vypusk. Kirgiz. SSR.Google Scholar
  67. Moreau, R., Castex, C. & Lamy, M., 1975. Examen préliminaire de quelques aspects des effects métaboliques d’un nouvel insecticide de synthese chez deux insectes nuisibles: Pieris brassicae L. et Thaumetopoea pityocampa S. (Lépidoptères). Ann. zool. ecol. Anim. 7: 161–170.Google Scholar
  68. Mulder, R. & Gijswijt, M.J., 1973. The laboratory culture evaluation of two promising new insecticides which interfere with cuticle deposition. Pest. Sci. 4: 737–745.Google Scholar
  69. Mulder, R. & Sweenen, A.A., 1973. Small scale field experiments with PH-60–38 and PH 60–40, insecticides inhibiting chitin synthesis. Proc. Brit. Insect Fung. Conf. 7: 729–735.Google Scholar
  70. Musy, M., 1916–18, Les chenilles du chou, leurs ennemis et les moyens de les combattre. Bull. Soc. Fribourg. Sci. nat. Fribourg. 24: 120–122.Google Scholar
  71. Novozhilov, K.V. & Evstigneeva, T.A., 1977. The toxicity of Gardona for caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly. (In Russian.) Khim. Sel. Khoz. 15: 73–76.Google Scholar
  72. Oldham, C., 1950. Vegetable growers guide. Lockwood, London.Google Scholar
  73. Ormerod, E.A., 1878 & 1879. Notes of observations of injurious insects, report 1878. West Newman & Co. London.Google Scholar
  74. Ormerod, E.A., 1880. Notes of observations of injurious insects, report 1880. West Newman & Co. London, pp. 25–27.Google Scholar
  75. Ormerod, E.A., 1881. Report of observations of injurious insects during 1881. Swan Sonnenschein, London, pp. 5–8.Google Scholar
  76. Ormerod, E.A., 1887. Notes of observations of injurious insects and common crop pests in 1887. pp. 87–89.Google Scholar
  77. Osmolosvski, G.Y., 1964. The biology of Apanteles glomeratus L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasite of Pieris brassicae. (In Russian.) Ent. Rev. (URSS) 43: 387–388.Google Scholar
  78. Paillot, A., 1928. Sur les properties insecticides de l’arsenite de calcium. C. r. Acad. agric. Fr. 14: 12–13, 502–506.Google Scholar
  79. Paillot, A. & Faure, J.C., 1923. Cultive du pyrethre et utilisation sur place de la recolte. C. r. Acad. agric. Fr. 9: 806–809.Google Scholar
  80. Philbrick, H., Gregg, R.B. & Hatfield, A.W., 1972. Companion Plants. Robinson & Watkins.Google Scholar
  81. Philips-Duphar, Bv., 1975. Dimilin. Experimental insecticide. Technical Information.Google Scholar
  82. Pilat, M., 1935. Action of insecticides on the intestinal tube of insects. Bull. ent. Res. 26: 165–180.Google Scholar
  83. Portier, P., 1949. Biologie des Lépidoptères. Lechevalier, Paris.Google Scholar
  84. Post, L.C., Jong, B.T. & Vincent, W.R., 1973. A new insecticide inhibits chitin synthesis. Naturwissenschaften 60: 431–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Post, L.C. & Mulder, R., 1974. Insecticidal properties and mode of action of l-(2,6-dihalogenbenzoyl)-3-Phenylureas. Abstr. papers Am. chem. Soc. 167th meeting. Google Scholar
  86. Potter, C., 1951. Insecticides and fungicides department. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Report for 1950. 101–111.Google Scholar
  87. Potter, C., 1955. Insecticides and fungicides department. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Report for 1954. 103–119.Google Scholar
  88. Potter, C., 1956. Insecticides and fungicides department. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Report for 1955. 112–130.Google Scholar
  89. Potter, C., 1957. Insecticides and fungicides department. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Report for 1956. 127–148.Google Scholar
  90. Potter, C., Lord, K.A., Kenten, J., Slakeld, E.H. & Holdbrook, D.V., 1957. Embryonic development and esterase activity of eggs of Pieris brassicae in relation to TEPP poisoning. Ann. appl. Biol. 45: 361–375.Google Scholar
  91. Potter, C. & Perkins, J.F., 1946. Control of brassica pests by DDT. Agric. 53: 109–113.Google Scholar
  92. Potter, C. & Tattersfield, F., 1943. Ovicidal properties of certain insecticides of plant origin (Nicotine, Pyrethrins, derris products). Bull. ent. Res. 34: 225–244.Google Scholar
  93. Potter, C., Tattersfield, F. & Gillham, E.M., 1946. Laboratory comparison of toxicity as a contact poison of DDT with nicotine, derris products and the Pyrethrins. Bull. ent. Res. 37: 469–496.Google Scholar
  94. Scheurer, R., Fluck, V. & Ruzette, M.A., 1975. Experiments with insect growth regulators (IGRs) on lepidopterous pests and some of their parasitoids. Mitt. Schweiz. ent. Ges. 48: 315–321.Google Scholar
  95. Schreiber, A.F., 1915a. Vegetable insecticides. (In Russian.) Horticulturist. Rostov on Don 903–912.Google Scholar
  96. Schreiber, A.F., 1915. Control of Pieris brassicae. Orchard Market Garden, Moscow 140–142.Google Scholar
  97. Schreiber, A.F., 1916. Deterrents to insects. (In Russian.) Horticulturist, Rostov on Don 15: 50–51.Google Scholar
  98. Schreiner, J., 1914. Provincial entomological conference Zemstvo of Charkov. 50–52.Google Scholar
  99. Sehnal, F., Romanuk, M. & Streinz, L., 1976. Potent juvenoids with cyclohexane moiety in the molecule. Acta ent. Bohemsoslov 73: 1–12.Google Scholar
  100. Singh, K. & Atwal, A.S., 1969. Haemocytopenia in insects caused by insecticides. J. Res. Punjab agric. Univ. 6: 927–932.Google Scholar
  101. Sleesman, J.P., 1957. New materials to control DDT-resistant cabbage worms and loopers. Ohio Fm. Home Res. 42: 64–65.Google Scholar
  102. Smith, J.B., 1891. Insect life 3: 218.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, J.B., 1896. Economic entomologist. Farmer and Fruit Grower. Lippencott Co. Philadelphia, USA.Google Scholar
  104. Speyer, W., 1950. Do modern contact insecticides have an ovicidal action? NachrBl. dt. PflSchutdienst. Berl. 2: 2–3.Google Scholar
  105. Sprenger, (-)., 1915. In Schreiber, A.F., Vegetable insecticides. (In Russian.) Horticulturalist, Rostov on Don. 903–912.Google Scholar
  106. Strawinski, K., 1928. Caterpillars on cabbage and their control by chemical measures. (In Russian.) Stacja Doswiadcz Ochrony Roslin w Zgierzu. 1–9.Google Scholar
  107. Sundukov, O.V., 1969. The action of organophosphorus insecticides on the central nervous system of lepidopterous larvae (Lepidoptera). (In Russian.) Ent. Obozr. 48: 71–80.Google Scholar
  108. Sundukov, O.V., 1971. The mechanism of pathogenesis in larvae of Pieris brassicae poisoned with chlorofos (Trichlorphon). All Union ent. Soc. Leningrad 2: 281–282.Google Scholar
  109. Sundukov, O.V., 1972. Features of the insecticidal action of organophosphorus compounds. (In Russian.) Ent. Obozr. 51: 561–572.Google Scholar
  110. Thakur, M.R., 1966. Common insect pests of temperate vegetable crops with special reference to Upper Kulu valley. Punjab Hort. J. 6: 188–192.Google Scholar
  111. Theobald, F.V., 1909. Animals injurious to vegetables. Jl. S.E. agric. Coll. Wye 1909: 157–164.Google Scholar
  112. Theobald, F.W., 1928. The large cabbage white butterfly (Pontia brassicae) and a simple method of control. Jl. S.E. agric. Coll. Wye 1928: 75–78.Google Scholar
  113. Tittanen, K., 1964a. The effect of pyrethrum preparations on certain common horticultural pests. Ann. agric. fenn. 3: 212–274.Google Scholar
  114. Tittanen, K., 1964b. The possibility of using pyrethrum preparations in the control of plant pests. Pyrethrum Post 7: 27–32.Google Scholar
  115. Touzeau, J., 1962. Observations sur la lutte en plein champ contre la Pieride du chou (Pieris brassicae). C. r. act. exp. Def. Cult. Tunisie 1962: 43–47.Google Scholar
  116. Turenen, S., 1975. Effect of gamma-BHC on lipid digestion and utilisation in Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) reared on an artificial diet. Ann. zool. fenn. 12: 275–279.Google Scholar
  117. Turowski, W., 1963. The influence of plant repellents on the appearance of the white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.). (In Polish.) B. Inst. Ochrony Rosl. (19) 239–247.Google Scholar
  118. Ugolini, A., 1959. La cavolaia. Inf. Fitopat. 9: 254–256.Google Scholar
  119. Verma, A.N., Sharma, P.D., Saramma, P.U., 1970. Relative toxicity of some contact insecticides against cabbage caterpillar of Pieris brassicae L. J. Res. Punjab agric. Univ. 6: 197–199.Google Scholar
  120. Vlasveld, W.P.N., 1975. Gids voor Ziekten Onkruidbestrijding in land Tuinbouw. Wageningen. 179.Google Scholar
  121. Voskresenskaya, A.K., 1936a. Poison penetration through intestinal wall. Zashch. Rast. 7: 25–36.Google Scholar
  122. Voskresenskaya, A.K., 1936b. Reaction of throwing out the poison being the cause of resistance of insects to arsenical compounds. Summ. Sci. Res. Wk. Inst. Plant Prot. Leningrad 1936: 380–383.Google Scholar
  123. Voskresenskaya, A.K., 1938. Can pyrethrum be used as a stomach insecticide? (In Russian.) Summ. Sci. Res. Wk. Inst. Plant Prot. 1936. 93–95.Google Scholar
  124. Voskresenskaya, A.K., 1939. Resistance to arsenicals in insects. Bull. Plant Prot. USSR 19: 132–144.Google Scholar
  125. Vostrikov, P., 1915. Tomatoes as insecticides. The importance of Solanaceae in control of pests of agriculture. (In Russian.) Husbandry on the Don, Novotcherkassk 10: 9–12.Google Scholar
  126. Wageningen, 1971. Control of insects on Brussels sprouts (in Dutch). Plant Protection Service no. 1797. Google Scholar
  127. Wahla, M.A., Gibbs, R., Gibbs, G. & Ford, J.B., 1976. Diazinon poisoning in the large white butterfly larvae and the influence of sesamex and piperonyl butoxide. Pest. Sci. 7: 367–371.Google Scholar
  128. Walker, J.J., 1918. The butterflies of the Oxford district. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 54: 246–250.Google Scholar
  129. Walker, P.T. & Turner, M.L., 1962. The toxicity of endrin granules to larvae of Pieris brassicae, including the effect of particle size and humidity. Rept. Trop. Pestic. Res. Unit Porton 219: 6.Google Scholar
  130. Wellinga, K., Grosscurt, A.C., Hes, R. van, 1977. 1-phenylcarbamoyl-2-pyrazolines, a new class of insecticides. I. Synthesis and insecticidal properties of 3-phenyl-1-phenylcarbamoyl-2-pyrazolines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25: 987–992.Google Scholar
  131. Wellinga, K., Mulder, R. & Daalen, J.J. van, 1973. Synthesis and laboratory evaluation of l-(2,6-disubstituted benzoyl)-3-phenylureas, a new class of insecticides, I. l-(2,6-Dichlorobenzoyl)-3-phenylureas. J. Agric. Food Chem. 21: 348–354, 993–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Yana, A., 1962. Essais de lutte chimique contre le pieride du chou en laboratoire. C. r. act. exp. Def. Cult. Tunsie 1962: 36–43.Google Scholar
  133. Zaitseva, V.G. & Ponomareva, E.A., 1976. A test of the economic effectiveness of plant protection. (In Russian.) Zashch. Rast. (4) 34–36.Google Scholar
  134. Zanno, P.R., Miura, I., Nakanishi, K. & Elder, D.L., 1975. Structure of the insect phagorepellent azardirachtin; application of PRFT/CWD carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97: 1975–1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ziarkiewicz, T. & Anasiewicz, A., 1961. Investigation on influence of hemp on the incidence of Pieris brassicae on cabbage. Roczn. nauk. Roln Warsaw 83: 641–649.Google Scholar

Further references

  1. Arkhangelski, P., 1925. Defense des Plantes 1: 239 (Control in USSR).Google Scholar
  2. Austin, M.D., 1929. Jl. S.E. agric. Coll. Wye 1929: 124–135 (use of pyrethrum).Google Scholar
  3. Austin, M. & Theobald, F.V., 1928. Jl. S.E. agric. Coll. Wye 1928: 59–67 (pyrethrum experiments).Google Scholar
  4. Bell, C.H., 1977. J. Stored Prod. Res. 13: 119–127 (methyl bromide).Google Scholar
  5. Board of Agriculture & Fisheries, 1918. Miscellaneous publication no. 21 (dust with slaked lime or spray with salt solution).Google Scholar
  6. Bogdanov-Katkov, N.N., 1919. Nat. Comm. agric. Moscow Petrograd Kiev 1919: 1–3 (control measures).Google Scholar
  7. Bogdanov-Katkov, N.N., 1921. Petrograd Kitchen Garden. 1921: 47–78 (review of control measures).Google Scholar
  8. Bogdanov-Katkov, N.N., 1922. All Russ. Union agric. Co-op. Mosc. & Petrograd 1–20 (control measures).Google Scholar
  9. Bovien, P. & Staple, C., 1940. Tidsskr. Planteavl, Copenhagen 45: 39–83 (derris experiments).Google Scholar
  10. Brown, A.W.A., 1951. Insect control by chemicals. Wiley, New York (many references to P. rapae, a few to P. brassicae).Google Scholar
  11. Coulon, J., 1963. Phytiat. Phytopharm., Paris 12: 45–49 (ethyl parathion, methyl paration).Google Scholar
  12. De Bussy, L.P., Van der Laan, P.A. & Jacobi, E.F., 1935. Tijdschr. Plziekt, Wageningen 41: 33–50 (derris dust mixed with kaolin).Google Scholar
  13. Dig for Victory, 1941. Leaflet Nos. 1, 5. 16 (derris recommended).Google Scholar
  14. Dindon, P.J., 1914. Horticulturist, Rostov on Don (12) 893–896 (control in USSR).Google Scholar
  15. Dodonov, B.A., 1936. Bull. Plant Prot. Leningrad 1936: 55–77 (experiments with arsenic and fluorine derivatives).Google Scholar
  16. Edwards, C.A. & Heath, G.W., 1964. Principles in agricultural entomology. Chapman & Hall, London (recommended dosages of DDT and phosdrin).Google Scholar
  17. Falck, R., 1920. Z. angew. Ent. 7: 37–47 (resinol solution).Google Scholar
  18. Fryer, J.C.F., Stenton, R., Tattersfield, F. & Roach, W.A., 1923. A. appl. Biol. 10: 18–34 (derris).Google Scholar
  19. Ginsburg, J.M. & Granett, P., 1934. J. econ. Ent. 27: 393 (derris root powder).Google Scholar
  20. Gustafsson, M., 1958. Medd. Växtskyddsans. Stockholm 11: 81–130 (P. brassicae used to test significance of droplet size in spraying).Google Scholar
  21. Güvener, A., Yücel, I. & Tuzun, H., 1973. Ziraf Mucadele Arastirma Yilligi 120 (pesticide residues of those pesticides used against P. brassicae). Google Scholar
  22. Hartley, G.S. & West, T.F., 1969. Chemicals for pest control. Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  23. Janische, R., 1926. NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst. Berl. 6: 18–20 (21 compounds tested by new method).Google Scholar
  24. Jones, F.G.W. & Jones, M.G., 1964. Pests of field crops. Arnold, London (rotenone, pyrethrum recommended).Google Scholar
  25. Laska, P., 1973. Bull. Vysk. Ustav. Zel. Olomouc (16–17) 85–93 (effectiveness of certain insecticides).Google Scholar
  26. Lesne, P., 1917. J. agric. Prat. Paris 30: 410–411 (spray soap or turpentine).Google Scholar
  27. Lind, J., Rostrup, S. & Kolpin Ravn, F., 1915. Beret. Stat. Forsgsv. Plantek. Kobenhavn 1915 (control by arsenical sprays).Google Scholar
  28. Lindblom, A., 1928. Meddel. Centralanst. Försöks Jordbruks. Lanthruksent Avdel. 53: 1–33 (nicotine, soap).Google Scholar
  29. Macleod, W.S., 1949. Review of literature on systemic insecticides. Division of entomology, Department of agriculture, Canada (Pestox-III).Google Scholar
  30. Meltzer, J., 1972. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 77–88 (MYC 8005 — an acaricide with strong inhibitory properties on P. brassicae). Google Scholar
  31. Morozov, S.F., 1935. Plant Prot. Leningrad 1935: 38–58 (effect of insecticides on cuticle penetration).Google Scholar
  32. Nikitin, I.V., 1939. Lenin. Acad. agric. Sci. 1940: 140–143 (pyrethrum).Google Scholar
  33. Potter, C., Lord, K.A. & Solly, R., 1960. Int. Cong. Crop. Prot. 4: 1169–1172 (action of organophosphoros compounds on insect ova).Google Scholar
  34. Prochaska, R.G., Cuthbert, F.P. & Reid, W.J., 1964. J. econ. Ent. (Zectrand and Bayer 44646 show good results).Google Scholar
  35. Rakushev, F.N., 1914. Horticulturalist, Rostov-on-Don (10) 801–804 (carbolic acid, potash soap recommended).Google Scholar
  36. Razauska, E., 1967. Kartofel’ Ovoshchi (8) 45 (DDT).Google Scholar
  37. Ripper, W.E., Greenslade, R.M. & Hartley, G.S., 1950. Bull. ent. Res. 40: 481–501 (bis (bis dimethylamine phosphorous) anhydride).Google Scholar
  38. Rothe, G., 1937. NachrBl. dt. PflschDienst. Berlin 15: 46–48 (mineral oils).Google Scholar
  39. Schreiner, J., 1914. Prov. ent. Conf. Zemstvo of Charkov 50–52 (acid Chromate of lead).Google Scholar
  40. Sekun, N.P., 1968. Ent. Obozr. 47: 726–730 (physiological changes during intestinal poisoning).Google Scholar
  41. Sharma, P.B. & Chopra, S.L., 1970. J. Res. Punjab Agric. Univ. Ludhiana 7: 365–368 (thiometon).Google Scholar
  42. Slade, R., 1945. Chem. Trade J. Lond. 116: 279–281 (gammexane, highly toxic).Google Scholar
  43. Stapel, C. & Peterson, H.I., 1944. Tidsskr. Planteavl. 48: 631–654 (gerasol).Google Scholar
  44. Strawinsky, K., 1928. Publ. Stan. Prot. Zgierz (2) (control of cabbage larvae).Google Scholar
  45. Swingle, M.C., 1934. J. econ. Ent. 27: 1101–1102 (Pyrethrins).Google Scholar
  46. Switzerland, 1922. Schweiz. Z. Obst Weinbau Frauenfeld 31: 219–220 (control).Google Scholar
  47. Szczepanska, K. & Kowalska, T., 1969. Prace nauk. Inst. Ochrony Roslin 11: 175–179 (DDT, fenitrothion).Google Scholar
  48. Szwejda, J., 1973. Biul. Warsywniczy 14: 319–332 (several insecticides tested).Google Scholar
  49. Tarasova, K.L., 1936. Izr. Kurs. Prikl. zool. Leningrad 6: 2–14 (anabasine).Google Scholar
  50. Thalenhorst, W., 1937. Z. angew. Ent. 23: 615–652 (derris).Google Scholar
  51. Theobald, F.W., 1927. Ann. Rpt. Res. Adv. Dept. SE agric. Coll. Wye 1–16 (pyrethrum).Google Scholar
  52. Turunen, S., 1972. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn. A. 193: 1–7 (effect of chlorinated insecticide on fatty acids of fat body).Google Scholar
  53. Turunen, S., 1977. Ent. expl. appl. 21: 254–260 (effect of lindane).Google Scholar
  54. Way, M.J., Smith, P.M. & Hopkins, B., 1951. Bull. ent. Res. 331–354 (insects as test subjects).Google Scholar
  55. Yule, W.N., 1964. Ann. appl. Biol. 53: 15–28 (pyrethrum).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Feltwell
    • 1
  1. 1.Battle, SussexGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations