Advertisement

Senses

  • John Feltwell
Part of the Series Entomologica book series (SENT, volume 18)

Abstract

The senses most frequently described in the Large White are visual, olfactory and tactile; these include chemosensory systems such as gustation in the larva and tarsal responses in the imago. Information about the gross morphology of ocelli and ommatidia has been known for a long time, but recent studies have revealed some more intricate details of these organs. Electrophysiological studies on insects and particularly on P. brassicae have only been pursued over the past 10 years or so. Larvae have also been credited with the sense of hearing and imagines with being able to detect changes in barometric pressure, but little work has been carried out in either of these two fields.

Keywords

Maxillary Palp Silk Thread Retinular Cell Butterfly Wing Crystalline Cone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Adkin, R., 1918. The abundance of white butterflies. Entomologist 51: 36–39.Google Scholar
  2. Adkin, R., 1942. P. brassicae and P. rapae. Entomologist 75: 91.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, F.A., 1974. Structure and metamorphosis of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of Pieris-brassicae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 125: 363–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan, P.B.M., 1943. The travel of larvae. Entomologist 76: 159–164.Google Scholar
  5. Angersbach, D., 1975. The direction of incident light and its perception in the control of pupal melanization in Pieris brassicae. J. Insect Physiol. 21: 1691–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baines, J.M., 1938. Butterflies stidulating. Entomologist 72: 220.Google Scholar
  7. Baier, L., 1930. Contribution ou physiologie de stridulation. Dissertation, University of Friebourg.Google Scholar
  8. Baier, L., 1941. Entomology under difficulty. Entomologist 74: 45–46.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, R.R., 1970. Bird prédation as a selective pressure on the immature stages of the cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae. J. Zool. Lond. 162: 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrer, P.M., 1969. Functional studies on insect photoreceptors with special reference to lepidopteran larvae. Ph.D. thesis, University of London (Imperial College).Google Scholar
  11. Barth, R., 1938. Beobachtung über Massenwanderung des grossen Kohlweisslings (Pieris brassicae L.). Anz. Schädlingsk. 14: 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baynes, E.S.A., 1961. Canary island butterflies. Entomologist 94: 260–262.Google Scholar
  13. Beattie, A.J., 1972. Insect visitors to three species of violet (Viola) in England. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 108: 7–11.Google Scholar
  14. Bedford, C.E., 1897. Pieris brassicae attracted by artificial flowers. Entomologist 30: 197–198.Google Scholar
  15. Bedford, E.J., 1940. Pieris brassicae in the city. Entomologist 73: 195.Google Scholar
  16. Behan, M. & Schoonhoven, L.M., 1978. Chemoreception of an oviposition deterrent associated with eggs in Pieris brassicae. Entomología exp. appl. 24: 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bergström, G. & Lundgren, L., 1973. Androconial secretion of three species of butterfly of the genus Pieris. Zoon. Suppl. 1: 67–75.Google Scholar
  18. Brecher, L., 1924. Die Puppenpassung des Kohlweisslings, Pieris brassicae L. VIII: Die Farbanpassung der Puppen durch das Raupenauge. Arch. mikrosk. Anat. EntwMech. 102: 501.Google Scholar
  19. Bünning, V.E. & Joerrens, G., 1960. Tagesperiodische antagonistische Schwankungen der Blauviolett- und Gelbrot-Empfindlichkeit als Grundlage der photo-periodischen Diapause-Induktion bei Pieris brassicae. Z. Naturf. 4: 205–213.Google Scholar
  20. Butterworth, J.H. & Morgan, E.D., 1971. Investigation of the locust feeding inhibition of the seeds of the Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica. J. Insect Physiol. 969–977.Google Scholar
  21. Chovet, G., 1974. Méchanismes d’accouplement, structure et fonctionnement de l’appareil reproducteur mâle de Pieris brassicae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Thèse, Diplome Doctorale 3 ème cycle. Université de Paris VI.Google Scholar
  22. Chovet, G., 1977. Les stimulus visuels dans le déclenchment de la parade nuptiale chez Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Nouvelle interprétation de certains comportements grégaires. C. r. Acad. Sci. Paris. 284: 2127–2130.Google Scholar
  23. Clements, A.M., 1967. A study of soluble esterases in Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera). J. Insect Physiol. 13: 1021–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Collenette, C.L., 1945. Orientation experiments on larvae of Pieris brassicae L. Entomologist 78: 33–36.Google Scholar
  25. Dannreuther, T., 1946. Migration records, 1945. Entomologist 79: 97–110.Google Scholar
  26. Darchen, R., 1967. Les constructions de la chenille de Pieris brassicae L. Rev. comp. An. (3) 61–76.Google Scholar
  27. David, W.A.L. & Gardiner, B.O.C., 1966. Mustard oil glycosides as feeding stimulants for Pieris brassicae larvae in a semi-synthetic diet. Entomología exp. appl. 9: 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dethier, V.G., 1947. Chemical insect attractants and repellants. H.K. Lewis & Co. Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  29. Dixey, F.A., 1932. The plume scales of the pierinae. Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 80: 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eastham, L.E.S. & Eassa, Y.E.E., 1955. Feeding mechanism of the butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. Phil. Trans. B. 239: 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El-Dakroury, M.S.I., 1972. A study of the larval photoreceptors of Pieris brassicae. Ph.D. thesis, University of London (Queen Mary College).Google Scholar
  32. Eliot, N., 1944. Larval anthropomorphism. Entomologist 11: 22–27.Google Scholar
  33. Eliot, N., 1948. Some notes on the habits of butterflies. Entomologist 81: 64–69.Google Scholar
  34. Eltringham, H., 1933. The senses of insects. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  35. Feltwell, J.S.E., 1977a. A choice chamber for small invertebrates. Nat. Sci. Schools 15: 72–74.Google Scholar
  36. Feltwell, J.S.E., 1977b. Migration of whites. Entomologists Mon. Mag. 112: 88.Google Scholar
  37. Ford, E.B., 1945. Butterflies. Collins, London.Google Scholar
  38. Frantsevitch, L.I. & Pichka, V.E., 1976. The size of the binocular zone of the visual field in insects. (In Russian.) Zh. Evol. biokhim. Fiziol. 12: 461–465.Google Scholar
  39. Frohawk, F.W., 1936. Late appearance of Pieris brassicae larvae. Entomologist 69: 63.Google Scholar
  40. Gautier, C. & Riel, P., 1919. Sur l’alimentation des chenilles des genres Pieris et Euchloe. C. r. Acad. Biol. 82: 1371–1374.Google Scholar
  41. Gysels, H., 1975. electrophoretical and histochemical investigations on some noxious Lepidoptera. Acta Zool. Pathol., Antwerp (62) 129–141.Google Scholar
  42. Götz, B., 1936. Beiträge zur Analyse des Verhaltens von Schmetterlingsraupen beim Aufsuchen des Futters und des Verpuppungsplatzes. Z. vergl. Physiol. 22: 429–503.Google Scholar
  43. Hamm, A.H., 1948. Butterfly and other visitors to Michaelmas Daisies. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 84: 91–93.Google Scholar
  44. Heath, J., 1940. Courtship of Pieris brassicae. Entomologist 73: 235.Google Scholar
  45. Hertz, M., 1927. Der Flug des Kohlweisslings über ein Feld.. Biol. Zbl. 47: 569–570.Google Scholar
  46. Heslop, I.R.P., 1956. White varieties of two Vanessid butterflies. Entomologist 89: 198–199.Google Scholar
  47. Ilse, D., 1928. Über den Farbensinn der Tagfalter. Z. vergl. Physiol. 8: 658–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ilse, D., 1937. New observations on responses to colours in egg-laying butterflies. Nature, Lond. 140: 544–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johannson, A.S., 1951. Studies on the relation between Apanteles glomeratus L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Norsk, ent. Tidsskr. 8: 145–186.Google Scholar
  50. Kudrna, O., 1972. On some Moroccan butterflies. Entomologist’s Rec. J. Var. 84: 267–268.Google Scholar
  51. Kudrna, O., 1973. On the status of Pieris cheiranthi Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Ent. Gaz. 24: 299–304.Google Scholar
  52. Littlewood, F., 1912. Collecting in Westmoreland, 1911. Entomologist 45: 158–161.Google Scholar
  53. Longstaff, G.B., 1912. Butterfly hunting in many lands. Longmans, Green & Co.Google Scholar
  54. Lozina-Lozinskii, L.K., 1953. The wing of a butterfly as a receptor of infrared radiation. (In Russian.) Akad. nauk. SSSR. Dok. 93: 369–372.Google Scholar
  55. Ma, W.C., 1969. Some properties of gustation in the larva of Pieris brassicae. Entomología expl. appl. 12: 584–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ma, W.C., 1972. Dynamics of feeding responses in Pieris brassicae L. as a function of chemosensory input: a behavioural, ultrastructural and electrophysiological study. Thesis. Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  57. Ma, W.C. & Schoonhoven, L.M., 1973. Tarsal contact chemosensory hairs of the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae and their possible role in oviposition behaviour. Entomologia expl. appl. 16: 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marsh, N. & Rothschild, M., 1974. Aposematic and cryptic lepidoptera tested on the mouse. J. Zool. Lond. 174: 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mazokhin-Porshniakov, G.A., 1957. Reflecting properties of butterfly wings and role of ultra-violet rays in the vision of insects. Biofilia 2: 352–362.Google Scholar
  60. Miles, P.M., 1957. Immigrant lepidoptera observed in Wales during 1954 and 1955. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 93: 184–188.Google Scholar
  61. Minnich, D.E., 1924. The olfactory sense of the cabbage white. J. exp. Zool. 39: 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Muller, A., 1925. Buddlea variabilis, a. specific bait-plant for butterflies. Nach. PflannzenSchutz. 5: 11.Google Scholar
  63. Nicholson, C., 1933. Immigrant lepidoptera, 1932. Entomologist 66: 67–68.Google Scholar
  64. Obara, V. & Hidaka, T., 1964. Mating behaviour of the cabbage white, Pieris rapae crucivora. I. The “Flutter response” of resting males to flying males. Zool. Mag. Tokyo 73: 131–135.Google Scholar
  65. Obara, V. & Hidaka, T., 1968. Recognition of the female by the male, on the basis of ultra-violet reflection in the white cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Proc. Jap. Acad. 44: 829–832.Google Scholar
  66. Ochmann, A., 1933. Aus der Spinnstube einiger heimischer Raupen. Int. ent. Z. 27: 249–252.Google Scholar
  67. Oltmer, A., 1968. Die Steuerung des Melanineinbaus in das Farbmuster der Kohlweisslingspuppe Pieris brassicae L. Wilhelm. Roux. Arch. EntwMech. Org. 160: 401–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pictet, A., 1917. Influence de la pression atmosphérique sur le développement des Lépidoptères. Arch. Sci. phys. nat. 44: 413–454.Google Scholar
  69. Pictet, A., 1918. Les éclosions de papillons et la pression barometrique. Bull. Soc. lépidopt. Genève 4: 67–74.Google Scholar
  70. Plateau, F., 1904–1906 in Portier (1949).Google Scholar
  71. Portier, P., 1949. Biologie des Lépidoptères. Lechavalier, Paris.Google Scholar
  72. Poulton, E.B., 1890. The colours of animals. Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  73. Rodriguez, E. & Levin, D.A., 1975. Biochemical parallelisms of repellents and attractants. In: Biochemical Interaction between plants and insects. Recent advances in phytochemistry. 10: Ed. J.W. Wallace & R.L. Mansell. 214–270.Google Scholar
  74. Rothschild, M., 1964. An extension of Dr. Lincoln Brower’s theory on bird predation and food specificy together with some observations on bird memory in relation to aposematic colour patterns. Entomologist 97: 73–78.Google Scholar
  75. Rothschild, M., Gardiner, B.O.C., Valadon, L.R.G. & Mummery, R.S., 1975. The Large white butterfly, oviposition cues, control and changes in colouration. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 40: 13.Google Scholar
  76. Rothschild, M. & Schoonhoven, L.M., 1977. Assessment of egg load by Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Nature, Lond. 266: 352–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sandeman, R.G., 1946. Autumn butterflies in Breconshire. Entomologist 79: 116–117.Google Scholar
  78. Schlieper, C., 1928. The distribution of brilliancy in the spectrum, with reference to various insects. Z. verg. Physiol. 8: (2) 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1967. Chemoreception of mustard oil glycosides in larvae of Pieris brassicae. Koninkl. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. Proc. Ser. C. 70: 556–568.Google Scholar
  80. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1969a. Amino-acid reception in larvae of Pieris.brassicae (Lepidoptera). Nature, Lond. 221: 1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1969b. Gustation and foodplant selection in some lepidopterous larvae. Entomología expl. appl. 12: 555–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1970. Hoe Herkennen Insekten Hun Voedselplant? Vakbl. biol. 52: 129–135.Google Scholar
  83. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1972. Some aspects of host selection and feeding in phytophagous insects. Insect and Mite Nutrition, North Holland.Google Scholar
  84. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1973. Plant recognition by lepidopterous larvae. Symp. R. ent. Soc. Lond. No. 6. Insect Plant Relationships. 87–99.Google Scholar
  85. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1977. Insect chemosensory responses to plant and animal hosts. In: Chemical Control of Insect Behaviour. Ed. H.H. Storey & J.J. McKelvey. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 7–14.Google Scholar
  86. Schoonhoven, L.M. & Dethier, V.G., 1966. Sensory aspects of host plant discrimination by lepidopterous larvae. Arch. Neerl. Zool. 16: 497–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schoonhoven, L.M. & Jermy, T., 1977. A behavioural and electrophysiological analysis of insect feeding deterrents. In: Crop Protection agent — their biological evaluation. Ed. N.R. McFarlane. pp. 133–146.Google Scholar
  88. Scott, H., 1921. Colias edusa, Pyrameis atalanta, and Agíais urticae in Cambs., Guernsey, and N. France. Entomologist 54: 18–19.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, H., 1933. Random notes from N. Oxfordshire, 1933. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 69: 280.Google Scholar
  90. Seuge, J., 1973. Recherches du rôle des stemmates dans la perception de la photopériode et l’induction de la diapause, chez Pieris brassicae. Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 98: 435–440.Google Scholar
  91. SLENHS (South London Entomological and Natural History Society), 1914. March 12, Meeting. Entomologist 47: 158.Google Scholar
  92. South, R., 1936. Butterflies of the British Isles. Warne, London.Google Scholar
  93. Speyer, W., 1955. Kohlweisslinge-Notizen. Z. Pflkrankh. Pflpath. Pflschutz. 62: 552–560.Google Scholar
  94. Sudah, M.I.E., 1970. Some effects of larval age and leaf age on the feeding behaviour of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Msc. Thesis, University of Bangor, Wales.Google Scholar
  95. Thorsteinson, A.J., 1953. The chemotactic responses that determine host specificity in an oligophagous insect (Plutella maculipennis (Curtis): Lepidoptera). Can. J. Zool. 31: 52–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tulloch, B., 1928. Valerian versus ivy blossom. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 61: 160.Google Scholar
  97. Tulloch, B., 1940. Do butterflies get “nerves”. Entomologist 73: 46–47.Google Scholar
  98. Valletta, A., 1954. An unusual pairing between Pieris and Colias (Lepidoptera). Entomologist 87: 38.Google Scholar
  99. Verschaffelt, H., 1910. Plantenkunde. De oorzaak der roedselkeus bij eenige plantenetende insecten. Kon. Akad. wet., Amsterdam 19: 595–600.Google Scholar
  100. Warren, B.C.S., 1961. The androconial scales and their bearing on the question of speciation in the genus Pieris (Lepidoptera). Entomol. Ts. Arg. 82: 3–4.Google Scholar
  101. Westwood, J.O., 1854. The butterflies of Great Britain. W.S. Orr & Co. Paternoster Row, London.Google Scholar
  102. Wigglesworth, V.B., 1967. The principles of Insect physiology. Methuen & Co., London.Google Scholar
  103. Wojtusiak, R.J., 1930. Weitere Untersuchungen über die Raumorientierung bei Kohlweisslingsraupen. Bull. int. Acad. pol. Sci. Lett. 1930: 631–655.Google Scholar

Further references

  1. Auel, H., 1912. Z. wiss. Insck. Biol. 8: 258–260 (defense mechanisms).Google Scholar
  2. Burkhardt, D., 1964. Adv. Insect Physiol. 2: 131–173 (colour discrimination).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Demoli, R., 1909. Arch. ges. Physiol. 129: 461–475 (pigment migration).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goldsmith, T.H., 1964. In: Physiology of the Insecta. Ed. M. Rockstein. pp. 397–462 (visual system of insects).Google Scholar
  5. Hocking, B., 1960. Defence research Board, Canada (bibliography of smell in insects).Google Scholar
  6. Levinson, H.Z., 1976. The defensive role of alkaloids in insects. Experimentia 32: 408–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Newman, E., 1868–1869. Entomologist 4: 130 (imagines attracted to water).Google Scholar
  8. Noite, H.W., 1949. Der Kohlweisslinge. Ziesem, Wittenberg (behavioural aspects of imagines).Google Scholar
  9. Querci, O. & Romei, L., 1945. Ela. ent. 28: 20–21 (effects of solar energy).Google Scholar
  10. Sanchez, D., 1916. Trab. Lab. Invest. biol. Univ. Madr. 14: 189–231 (retina development).Google Scholar
  11. Sanchez, D.S.Y. & Sanchez, D., 1918. Trab. Lab. Invest. biol. Univ. Madr. 16: 213–278 (nerves of the retina).Google Scholar
  12. Schneider, H., 1923. Zool. Anz. 56: 155–160 (hairs).Google Scholar
  13. Schoonhoven, L.M., 1976. Symp. Biol. Hung. 16: 261–266 (chemosensory variability).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Feltwell
    • 1
  1. 1.Battle, SussexGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations