Map and Line-Drawing Processing

  • Herbert Freeman
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 77)


Maps are line drawings used to represent data that is intrinsically two-dimensional in nature. The most common use of maps is for depicting geographically distributed data, though maps also find application for representing data based on totally different spatial coordinates. Once confined to representation solely on paper, today’s maps tend increasingly to be stored in digital form on magnetic tape or disk, with the “paper” map being merely a “hard copy” of the stored data. This article discusses some of the different map forms, data structures, and algorithms for analysis and manipulation, and describes some of the current problems relating to the processing of all-digital map data.


Line Segment Contour Line Line Drawing Generalize Chain Code Word 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Rosenfeld and A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Academic Press, New York 1976, Chapt. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978, Chapt’s. 21–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Freeman, “Computer processing of line drawing images”, Computing Surveys, vol. 6, no. 1, March 1974, pp. 57–97.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Attneave and M. D. Arnoult, “The quantitative study of shape and pattern perception”, Psychol. Bulletin, vol. 53, 1956, pp. 453–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Freeman and J. A. Saghri, “Comparative analysis of line-drawing modelling schemes”, Comp. Graphics and Image Proc., vol. 12, no. 3, March 1980, pp. 203–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Freeman, “Applications of the generalized chain coding scheme to map data processing”, Proc. Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, IEEE Computer Society, publ. no. 78CH1318-5C, May 1978, pp. 220–226.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. A. Saghri and H. Freeman. “Analysis of the precision of generalized chain codes for the representation of planar curves”, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 1980, (to appear).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. A. McClure, “Computation of approximately optimal compressed representations of discretized plane curves”, Proc. Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, IEEE Computer Society publ. no. 77CH1208-9C, June 1977, pp. 175–182.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Proffitt and D. Rosen, “Metrication errors and coding efficiency of chain-encoding schemes for the representation of lines and edges”, Comp. Graphics and Image Proc., vol. 10, 1979, pp. 318–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Freeman and S. P. Morse, “On searching a contour map for a given terrain elevation profile”, Jour. Franklin Institute, vol. 284, no. 1, July 1967, pp. 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. P. Morse, “Computer storage of contour-map data”, Proc. 23rd National Conf. of ACM, LasVegas, Nevada, August 1968.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. D. Merrill, “Representation of contours and regions for efficient computer search”, Comm. ACM, vol. 16, no. 2, Feb. 1973, pp. 69–82.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. D. Shapiro and R. M. Haralick, “A general spatial data structure”, Proc. Conf. on Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, IEEE Computer Soc., publ. no. 78CH1318-5C, May 1978.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. W. Jordan and R. C. Barrett, “A scan conversion algorithm with reduced storage requirements”, Comm. ACM, vol. 16, no. 11, November 1973, pp. 676–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. C. Barrett and B. W. Jordan, “Scan conversion algorithms a cell organized raster display”, Comm. ACM, vol. 17, no. 3, March 1974, pp. 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. A. Saghri, Efficient encoding of line drawing data with generalized chain codes, Tech. Rept. IPL-TR-79-003, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, August 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Rosenfeld, “Algorithms for image/vector conversion”, Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 3, August 1978, pp. 135–139.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. F. Sproull and I. E. Sutherland, “A clipping divider”, Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conf., 1968, AFIPS Press, pp. 765–775.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Freeman, “Analysis of line drawings”, in J. C. Simon and A. Rosenfeld, Digital Image Processing and Analysis, Noordhoff, Leyden, 1977, pp. 187–199.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Kubert, J. Szabo, and S. Giulieri, “The perspective representation of functions of two variables”, Jan. ACM, vol. 15, no. 2, April 1968, pp. 193–204.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. J. Wright, “A two-space solution to the hidden-line problem for plotting functions of two variables”, IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. C-22, no. 1, January 1973, pp. 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

Personalised recommendations