Fast Reactions in Dispersed Heterogeneous Energetic Systems

  • J. A. Nicholls
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (ASIC, volume 71)

Abstract

There are many situations that may arise wherein a gaseous, liquid, or dust form of fuel may be dispersed throughout an appreciable volume. The possibility exists that a localized rapid release of sufficient energy could produce a blast wave and directly initiate detonative combustion. This problem is treated herein. The characteristics of shock waves, blast waves, gaseous detonation, and heterogeneous (liquid fuel drops or dusts) detonation are briefly discussed. The theoretical aspects of the blast wave initiation of gaseous detonation are described and differences pointed out for the case of heterogeneous detonation. Experimental results on the shock wave ignition of liquid fuel drops and dusts and the blast wave initiation of cylindrical and planar gaseous and heterogeneous detonation waves are presented. A number of fuels were tested, such as kerosene, decane, butane, magnesium, coal dust, and various grain dusts. The experimental findings are discussed in light of the theory.

Keywords

Combustion Methane Explosive Acetylene Milo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Williams, F.A.: 1962, “Detonations in Dilute Sprays”, Progress in Astronautics and Rocketry 6, pp. 99–114.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dabora, E.K., Ragland, K.W., and Nicholls, J.A.: 1966, “A Study of Heterogeneous Detonations”, Astronautica Acta, 12, p. 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sedov, L.I.: 1959, “Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics”, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor, G.I.: 1950, “The Dynamics of the Combustion Products Behind Plane and Spherical Detonation Fronts in Explosives”, Proc. Roy. Soc., A200, pp. 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Korobeinikov, V.P.: 1971, “Gas Dynamics of Explosions”, Ann. Rev. of Fluid Mechanics, 3, pp. 317–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Korobeinikov, V.P.: 1969, “The Propagation of Point Explosions in a Detonating Gas”, Astronautica Acta, 14, pp. 411–419.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chernyi, G.G., Korobeinikov, V.P., Levin, V.A., and Medvedev, S.A.: 1970, “One-Dimensional Unsteady Motion of Combustible Gas Mixtures Associated with Detonation Waves”, Astronautica Acta, 15, pp. 259–266.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Korobeinikov, V.P., Levin, V.A., Markov, V.V., and Chernyi, G.G.: 1972, “Propagation of Blast Waves in a Combustible Gas”, Astronautica Acta, 17, pp. 529–537.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, J.H.: 1972, “Gasdynamics of Detonations”, Astronautica Acta, 17, pp. 455–466.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bach, G.G., Knystautas, R., and Lee, J.H.: 1971, “Initiation Criteria for Diverging Gaseous Detonation”, 13th Symposium (Int’1) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1097–1110.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sichel, M.: 1977, “A Simple Analysis of the Blast Initiation of Detonation”, Astronautica Acta, 4, pp. 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sichel, M. and Oza, R.: 1978, “Detonation of the Critical Energy and of Subcritical Propagation in the Direct Initiation of Detonations”, presented at Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nicholls, J.A., Sichel, M., Gabrijel, Z., Oza, R.D., and VanderMolen, R.: 1979, “Detonability of Unconfined Natural Gas-Air Clouds”, Seventeenth Symposium ( Int’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 1223–1234.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boni, A.A., Chapman, M., and Cook, J.L.: 1977, “A Study of Detonation in Methane-Air Clouds”, Sixth International Colloquium on Gas Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Stockholm, p. 1153.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bull, D.C., Elsworth, J.E., Hooper, G., and Quinn, C.P.: 1976, “A Study of Spherical Detonation in Mixture of Methane and Oxygen Diluted by Nitrogen”, J. Phys., D.: Applied Phys., 9.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edwards, D.H., Hooper, G., Morgan, J.M., and Thomas, G.O.: 1977, “The Quasi-Steady Shock-Deflagration Regime in Dissociated Detonation Waves”, Sixth International Colloquium on Gasdynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bar-Or, R., Sichel, M., and Nicholls, J.A.: 1980, “The Preparation of Cylindrical Detonations in Monodisperse Sprays”, accepted for 18th Symposium (Int’l) on Combustion, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oza, R.D.: 1979, “Theoretical Determination of Minimum Energy Required for the Direct Initiation of Detonations”, Doctoral Thesis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sichel, M.: 1980, private communication.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lane, W.R.: 1951, “Shattering of Drops in Streams of Air”, Ind. Eng. Chem., 43, 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ranger, A.A. and Nicholls, J.A.: 1969, “Aerodynamic Shattering of Liquid Drops”, AIAA J., 7, 2, pp. 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fishburn, B.D.: 1976, “Boundary Layer Stripping of Liquid Drops Fragmented by Taylor Instability”, Acta Astronautica 1, pp. 1267–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaufmann, C.W. and Nicholls, J.A.: 1971, “Shock-Wave Ignition of Liquid Fuel Drops”, AIAA J., 9, p. 5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kauffman, C.W., Nicholls, J.A., and Olzmann, K.A.: 1971, “The Interaction of an Incident Shock Wave with Liquid Fuel Drops”, Combustion Sci. and Tech., 3, p. 4.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fox, T., Rackett, G., and Nicholls, J.A.: 1978, “Shock Wave Ignition of Magnesium Powders”, Shock Tube and Shock Wave Research, Proc. 11th International Symposium on Shock Tubes and Waves, Univ. of Washington Press, pp. 262–268.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kauffman, C.W., Wolanski, P., Ural, E., Nicholls, J.A., and VanDyk, R.: 1979, “Shock Wave Initiated Combustion of Grain Dust”, presented at Symposium on Grain Dust, U.S. Grain Marketing Research Lab., Manhattan, KS.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pierce, T.H.: 1978, “Blast Wave Propagation in a Spray”, J. Fluid Mech., 88, Pt 4, pp. 641–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    VanderMolen, R. and Nicholls, J.A.: 1979, “Blast Wave Initiation Energy for the Detonation of Methane-Ethane-Air Mixture”, Combustion Science and Technology, 21, pp. 75–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fry, R.S. and Nicholls, J.A.: 1974, “Blast Initiation and Propagation of Cylindrical Detonations in MAPP-Air Mixtures”, AIAA J., 12.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bar-Or, R.: 1979, “Cylindrical, Two-Phase Detonations in Monodisperse Sprays”, Doctoral Thesis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolanski, P., Kauffman, C.W., Sichel, M., and Nicholls, J.A.: 1979, “Detonation of Methane-Air Mixtures”, presented at Eastern States Section, Combustion Institute, Georgia Inst. Tech., Atlanta, GA; accepted for 18th Symposium (Int’l) on Combustion, Univ. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Nicholls
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations