Are Stellar Flares and the Galactic Cosmic Rays Related?

  • Richard I. Epstein
Part of the International Astronomical Union / Union Astronomique Internationale book series (IAUS, volume 94)


It has been suggested that the Galactic cosmic rays may be accelerated by a two stage process in which one process, such as stellar flares, inject non-relativistic, super-thermal particles which are subsequently boosted to cosmic ray energies by some other mechanism, perhaps related to supernovae (eg. Cassé and Goret, 1978). Two-stage models in which the injection and re-acceleration processes are uncorrelated are apparently untenable because they cannot fit the observed energy dependence of the LiBeBN/CNO ratio (Fransson and Epstein, 1980). Here it is shown that additional contraints derived by considering the energy losses and nuclear reactions suffered by the super-thermal particles prior to their re-acceleration severely restrict other types of two-stage models.


Nuclear Reaction Ionization Loss Source Composition Primary Nucleus Nucleon Density 
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  1. Cassé, M. and Goret, P.: 1978, Ap.J., 221, 703.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fransson, C. and Epstein, R.: 1980, Ap.j. (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Montmerle, T.: 1979, Ap.J. 231, 95.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IAU 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard I. Epstein
    • 1
  1. 1.NORDITACopenhagenDenmark

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